АвторТема: THE PRE-COLUMBIAN PEOPLING OF AMERICA: BY THE Y CHROMOSOME  (Прочитано 1842 раз)

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THE PRE-COLUMBIAN PEOPLING OF AMERICA: BY THE Y CHROMOSOME
Fabr?cio R. Santos

Abstract

Past human history has been vastly investigated by many distinct disciplines. The first peopling of America has been a focus of an intensive debate among scholars. Genetics has brought a new light to this history but also more discussion and doubts. Even among geneticists, distinct tools have been used and sometimes gave different answers. Now, with the blooming of the genomic era, a large set of genetic data is available and new analyses are being performed with aims to unveil the human past. Variation associated to the human Y chromosome is one of the tools which have added new information about the movement of prehistoric males into America. After almost a decade since the first Y chromosome clue about the American prehistory has been published, we have a better picture of this past event. The Y chromosome record tells that the first migrants have come through Beringia sometime between 18,000 and 15,000 years ago in a single major wave. Those first migrants, the Palaeoamericans, gave rise to the three distinct Native American linguistic groups: Amerindians, Na-Den? and Eskimo-Aleuts. The populations in Asia that are more related to the Native Americans live today in South-Central Siberia close to the Altai Mountains. This genetic history agrees well with other genetic markers like mtDNA and also with several evidences from physical anthropology, archaeology and geology.


Figure 1 : Tracing Y chromosome lineages (haplogroups) through analyses of accumulation and sharing of variations (gray boxes with loci names).


Figure 2 : Pre-Columbian colonization of America by the Y chromosome during the Pleistocene. An ancestral Paleoamerican (PA) population should have crossed Beringia between 18,000 and 15,000 years ago. The Paleoamericans who migrated first to south through the coastline originated the Amerindians. At the end of glaciation (>12,500 years ago) the Na-Den? left the north to south North America and Eskimo-Aleuts remained in the circumpolar area.

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