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Re: Результаты исследования древней ДНК (дДНК)
« Ответ #30 : 01 Ноябрь 2010, 13:45:18 »
Ancient DNA evidence supports the contribution of Di-Qiang people to the han Chinese gene pool // American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Article first published online: 24 SEP 2010, DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.21399

Zhao et al.

Abstract
Han Chinese is the largest ethnic group in the world. During its development, it gradually integrated with many neighboring populations. To uncover the origin of the Han Chinese, ancient DNA analysis was performed on the remains of 46 humans (?1700 to 1900 years ago) excavated from the Taojiazhai site in Qinghai province, northwest of China, where the Di-Qiang populations had previously lived. In this study, eight mtDNA haplogroups (A, B, D, F, M*, M10, N9a, and Z) and one Y-chromosome haplogroup (O3) were identified. All analyses show that the Taojiazhai population presents close genetic affinity to Tibeto-Burman populations (descendants of Di-Qiang populations) and Han Chinese, suggesting that the Di-Qiang populations may have contributed to the Han Chinese genetic pool.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajpa.21399/abstract;jsessionid=004691A3B71AF699D7EB99BF9E444A15.d01t02

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Re: Результаты исследования древней ДНК (дДНК)
« Ответ #31 : 10 Ноябрь 2010, 01:37:34 »
Ancient DNA from European Early Neolithic Farmers Reveals Their Near Eastern Affinities // PLoS Biol 8(11): e1000536. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000536

Haak et al.

Abstract
In Europe, the Neolithic transition (8,000–4,000 B.C.) from hunting and gathering to agricultural communities was one of the most important demographic events since the initial peopling of Europe by anatomically modern humans in the Upper Paleolithic (40,000 B.C.). However, the nature and speed of this transition is a matter of continuing scientific debate in archaeology, anthropology, and human population genetics. To date, inferences about the genetic make up of past populations have mostly been drawn from studies of modern-day Eurasian populations, but increasingly ancient DNA studies offer a direct view of the genetic past. We genetically characterized a population of the earliest farming culture in Central Europe, the Linear Pottery Culture (LBK; 5,500–4,900 calibrated B.C.) and used comprehensive phylogeographic and population genetic analyses to locate its origins within the broader Eurasian region, and to trace potential dispersal routes into Europe. We cloned and sequenced the mitochondrial hypervariable segment I and designed two powerful SNP multiplex PCR systems to generate new mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal data from 21 individuals from a complete LBK graveyard at Derenburg Meerenstieg II in Germany. These results considerably extend the available genetic dataset for the LBK (n = 42) and permit the first detailed genetic analysis of the earliest Neolithic culture in Central Europe (5,500–4,900 calibrated B.C.). We characterized the Neolithic mitochondrial DNA sequence diversity and geographical affinities of the early farmers using a large database of extant Western Eurasian populations (n = 23,394) and a wide range of population genetic analyses including shared haplotype analyses, principal component analyses, multidimensional scaling, geographic mapping of genetic distances, and Bayesian Serial Simcoal analyses. The results reveal that the LBK population shared an affinity with the modern-day Near East and Anatolia, supporting a major genetic input from this area during the advent of farming in Europe. However, the LBK population also showed unique genetic features including a clearly distinct distribution of mitochondrial haplogroup frequencies, confirming that major demographic events continued to take place in Europe after the early Neolithic.

http://www.plosbiology.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.1000536&representation=PDF

F* M89*(xM201,M69,M170,M304,M9)   // HV   311C
F* M89*(xM201,M69,M170,M304,M9)   // K 093C, 224C, 311C
G2a3   L30 // W 093C, 223T, 292T

H CRS
H nd
H CRS
T nd
T nd
T 126C, 189C, 294T, 296T
T2 126C, 294T, 296T, 304C
T2 126C, 147T, 293G, 294T, 296T, 297C, 304C
T2 126C, 294T, 296T, 304C
K 093C, 224C, 311C
K nd
K 224C, 311C
J1c 069T, 126C
J1c 069T, 126C
J1c 069T, 126C
HV 311C
HV 311C
N1a 147A, 172C, 223T, 248T, 320T, 355T
N1a 092C, 129A, 147A, 154C, 172C, 223T, 248T, 320T, 355T
N1a 147A, 172C, 223T, 248T, 355T
W 093C, 223T, 292T
V 298C
U5a1a 093C, 256T, 270T, 399G

* mtDNA HVR1 +16000

« Последнее редактирование: 10 Ноябрь 2010, 01:47:33 от Centurion »

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Re: Результаты исследования древней ДНК (дДНК)
« Ответ #32 : 22 Ноябрь 2010, 12:46:57 »
Diachronic Investigations of Mitochondrial and Y-Chromosomal Genetic Markers in Pre-Columbian Andean Highlanders from South Peru // Annals of Human Genetics, Article first published online: 22 NOV 2010, DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-1809.2010.00620.x

Fehren-Schmitz et al.

This study examines the reciprocal effects of cultural evolution, and population dynamics in pre-Columbian southern Peru by the analysis of DNA from pre-Columbian populations that lived in the fringe area between the Andean highlands and the Pacific coast. The main objective is to reveal whether the transition from the Middle Horizon (MH: 650–1000 AD) to the Late Intermediate Period (LIP: 1000–1400 AD) was accompanied or influenced by population dynamic processes. Tooth samples from 90 individuals from several archaeological sites, dating to the MH and LIP, in the research area were collected to analyse mitochodrial, and Y-chromosomal genetic markers. Coding region polymorphisms were successfully analysed and replicated for 72 individuals, as were control region sequences for 65 individuals and Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for 19 individuals, and these were compared to a large set of ancient and modern indigenous South American populations. The diachronic comparison of the upper valley samples from both time periods reveals no genetic discontinuities accompanying the cultural dynamic processes. A high genetic affinity for other ancient and modern highland populations can be observed, suggesting genetic continuity in the Andean highlands at the latest from the MH. A significant matrilineal differentiation to ancient Peruvian coastal populations can be observed suggesting a differential population history.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-1809.2010.00620.x/abstract

Найдены Y-ДНК гаплогруппы: Q*, C, Q1a3a*, Q1a3a1, Q1a3a2 и Q1a3a3. Также мтДНК гаплогруппы A, B, C, D.
« Последнее редактирование: 24 Ноябрь 2010, 22:37:34 от Centurion »

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Re: Результаты исследования древней ДНК (дДНК)
« Ответ #33 : 25 Ноябрь 2010, 18:09:42 »
Nuclear DNA Typing From Ancient Teeth // Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2010 Nov 5

Sosa et al.

Abstract
Because of the adverse effects that diagenesis exert on ancient skeletal remains, DNA from these samples is often compromised to the point where genetic typing can be challenging. Nevertheless, robust and reliable methods are currently available to allow successful genotyping of ancient specimens. Here we report nuclear DNA-based methods and typing strategies used to analyze 2 human skeletons from a medieval burial. Reliable DNA nuclear profiles were obtained from teeth, whereas mitochondrial DNA analyses in bones were inconclusive. A complete nuclear mini short tandem repeat profile was obtained from a well-preserved premolar, but only a partial one from the femur. Increasing the sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction system allowed a full profile from the latter, but the presence of artifacts reinforced the idea that the interpretation of this kind of analysis must be performed with caution. The results presented here also indicate that DNA from dental pieces can be better preserved than from bones, even in the case of well-preserved long bones with thick cortical tissue such as the femurs, and have a better chance of successful genetic typing, probably because of the high degree of protection conferred to the DNA by the enamel.

http://journals.lww.com/amjforensicmedicine/Abstract/publishahead/Nuclear_DNA_Typing_From_Ancient_Teeth.99802.aspx

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Re: Результаты исследования древней ДНК (дДНК)
« Ответ #34 : 17 Декабрь 2010, 22:09:09 »
Ancient nuclear DNA and kinship analysis: The case of a medieval burial in San Esteban Church in Cuellar (Segovia, Central Spain) // American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Article first published online: 17 DEC 2010, DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.21451

Gamba et al.

The aim of this work was to investigate a very common situation in the archaeological and anthropological context: the study of a burial site containing several individuals, probably related genetically, using ancient DNA techniques. We used available ancient DNA and forensic protocols to obtain reliable results on archaeological material. The results also enabled molecular sex determination to be compared with osteological data. Specifically, a modified ancient DNA extraction method combined with the amplification of nuclear markers with the AmpFlSTR®MiniFiler™ kit(Applied Biosystems) was used. Seven medieval individuals buried in four niches dated in the 15th Century at San Esteban Church in Cuellar (Segovia, Central Spain) were analyzed by the proposed method, and four of seven provided complete autosomal short tandem repeat (STRs) profiles. Kinship analyses comprising paternity and sibship relations were carried out with pedigree-specific software used in forensic casework. A 99.98% paternity probability was established between two individuals, although lower percentages (68%) were obtained in other cases, and some hypothetical kinship relations were excluded. The overall results could eventually provide evidence for reconstructing the historical record.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajpa.21451/abstract

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Re: Результаты исследования древней ДНК (дДНК)
« Ответ #35 : 12 Январь 2011, 16:12:58 »
Mitochondrial analysis of a Byzantine population reveals the differential impact of multiple historical events in South Anatolia // European Journal of Human Genetics , (12 January 2011) | doi:10.1038/ejhg.2010.230

Ottoni et al.

he archaeological site of Sagalassos is located in Southwest Turkey, in the western part of the Taurus mountain range. Human occupation of its territory is attested from the late 12th millennium BP up to the 13th century AD. By analysing the mtDNA variation in 85 skeletons from Sagalassos dated to the 11th–13th century AD, this study attempts to reconstruct the genetic signature potentially left in this region of Anatolia by the many civilizations, which succeeded one another over the centuries until the mid-Byzantine period (13th century BC). Authentic ancient DNA data were determined from the control region and some SNPs in the coding region of the mtDNA in 53 individuals. Comparative analyses with up to 157 modern populations allowed us to reconstruct the origin of the mid-Byzantine people still dwelling in dispersed hamlets in Sagalassos, and to detect the maternal contribution of their potential ancestors. By integrating the genetic data with historical and archaeological information, we were able to attest in Sagalassos a significant maternal genetic signature of Balkan/Greek populations, as well as ancient Persians and populations from the Italian peninsula. Some contribution from the Levant has been also detected, whereas no contribution from Central Asian population could be ascertained.

http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/ejhg2010230a.html
http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/vaop/ncurrent/suppinfo/ejhg2010230s1.html


Apollo Klarios

H - 3
H8 - 3
Hv2
J2b
K1a*
N1b - 3
R0a2
R0a2c - 3
T2b - 2
U3 - 2
U5a
U6a
W3 - 2
X2b

Lower Agora

H - 3
H14a1
H20
HV - 2
J1c
J1c2 - 3
J2b
K
K2
K2a
K1a*
N1b - 3
T2
T2b - 2
U1a - 2
U3a2
U8b
W
W3
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Re: Результаты исследования древней ДНК (дДНК)
« Ответ #36 : 26 Январь 2011, 18:05:29 »
South from Alaska: A Pilot aDNA Study of Genetic History on the Alaska Peninsula and the Eastern Aleutians // Human Biology - Volume 82, Numbers 5-6, October-December 2010, pp. 677-693

Raff et al.

he Aleutian Islands were colonized, perhaps several times, from the Alaskan mainland. Earlier work documented transitions in the relative frequencies of mtDNA haplogroups over time, but little is known about potential source populations for prehistoric Aleut migrants. As part of a pilot investigation, we sequenced the mtDNA first hypervariable region (HVRI) in samples from two archaeological sites on the Alaska Peninsula (the Hot Springs site near Port Moller, Alaska; and samples from a cluster of sites in the Brooks River area near Katmai National Park and Preserve) and one site from Prince William Sound (Mink Island). The sequences revealed not only the mtDNA haplogroups typically found in both ancient and modern Aleut populations (A2 and D2) but also haplogroups B2 and D1 in the Brooks River samples and haplogroup D3 in one Mink Islander. These preliminary results suggest greater mtDNA diversity in prehistoric populations than previously observed and facilitate reconstruction of migration scenarios from the peninsula into the Aleutian archipelago in the past.

http://muse.jhu.edu/login?uri=/journals/human_biology/v082/82.5-6.raff.pdf

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Re: Результаты исследования древней ДНК (дДНК)
« Ответ #37 : 26 Январь 2011, 18:07:24 »
Mitochondrial DNA analysis of ancient human bones excavated from Nukdo island, S.Korea // BMB reports

Kim et al.

We have performed analyses using ancient DNA extracted
st
from 25 excavated human bones, estimating around the 1
century B.C. Ancient human bones were obtained from Nukdo
Island, which is located off of the Korean peninsula of East
Asia. We made concerted efforts to extract ancient DNA of
high quality and to obtain reproducible PCR products, as this
was a primary consideration for this extensive kind of under-
taking. We performed PCR amplifications for several regions of
the mitochondrial DNA, and could determine mitochondrial
haplogroups for 21 ancient DNA samples. Genetic information
from mitochondrial DNA belonged to super-haplogroup M,
haplogroup D or its sub-haplogroups (D4 or D4b), which are
distinctively found in East Asians, including Koreans or Japanese.
The dendrogram and principal component analysis based on
haplogroup frequencies revealed that the Nukdo population
was close to those of the East Asians and clearly distinguished
from populations shown in the other regions. Considering that
Nukdo is geologically isolated in the southern part of the
Korean peninsula and is a site of commercial importance with
neighboring countries, these results may reflect genetic con-
tinuity for the habitation and migration of ethnic groups who
had lived in a particular area in the past. Therefore, we suggest
that phylogenetic analyses of ancient DNA have significant ad-
vantages for clarifying the origins and migrations of ethnic
groups, or human races.

http://www.jbmb.or.kr/jbmb/jbmb_files/%255B43-2%255D1002251130_(133-139)BMB317(09-197).pdf

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Re: Результаты исследования древней ДНК (дДНК)
« Ответ #38 : 26 Январь 2011, 18:10:29 »
ANCIENT mtDNA SEQUENCES AND RADIOCARBON DATING OF HUMAN BONES FROM THE CHALCOLITHIC CAVES OF WADI EL?MAKKUKH // Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry, Vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 1?14, Copyright © 2010 MAA

Salamon et al.

DNA from fossil human bones can provide valuable information for understanding intra?  and
inter?population relationships. Using the DNA preserved inside crystal aggregates from human fos?
sil bones containing relatively large amounts of collagen, we demonstrate the presence of repro?
ducible mtDNA control region sequences. Radiocarbon dates from each bone show that the burial
caves were used for up to 600 years during the Chalcolithic period (5th?4th millennium BP). A com?
parison of the ancient DNA sequences with modern mtDNA databases indicates that all samples
can most likely be assigned to the R haplogroup sub?clades, which are common in West?Eurasia. In
four cases more precise and confident haplogroup identifications could be achieved (H, U3a and
H6). The H haplogroup is present in three out of the four assigned ancient samples. This hap?
logroup is prevalent today in West – Eurasia. The results reported here tend to genetically link this
Chalcolithic group of individuals to the current West Eurasian populations.  

http://www.rhodes.aegean.gr/maa_journal/1_Weiner.pdf

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Re: Результаты исследования древней ДНК (дДНК)
« Ответ #39 : 10 Февраль 2011, 18:48:22 »
A PALEOGENETIC STUDY OF THE PREHISTORIC POPULATIONS OF THE ALTAI* // Archaeology, Ethnology & Anthropology of Eurasia 4 (32) 2007

Chikisheva et al.

http://www.springerlink.com/content/p28266v510072981/fulltext.pdf

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« Ответ #40 : 10 Февраль 2011, 18:49:40 »
Mitochondrial DNA studies of the Pazyryk people (4th to 3rd centuries BC) from northwestern Mongolia // ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND ANTHROPOLOGICAL SCIENCES, Volume 2, Number 4, 231-236, DOI: 10.1007/s12520-010-0042-z

Pilipenko et al.

The discovery and excavations in 2006 by joint Russian–German–Mongolian expeditions of the Pazyryk culture burial sites (4th to 3rd centuries BC, Early Iron Age, the Scythian period) in the Altai mountains of northwestern Mongolia near the Russia border provided new material for studying various aspects of these ancient peoples lives, including human, animal and plant remains. Ice accumulation in the graves preserved the human remains, allowing biological analysis of the samples. We conducted a genetic study based on mitochondrial DNA from remains of three Pazyryk culture representatives to investigate the possible genetic relationships of this Siberian Scythian group with populations of adjacent territories. These data support possible genetic contacts between populations of Altai and other Eurasia regions in the Early Iron Age, and are in good agreement with corresponding archaeological and anthropological data. However, a large-scale study of the Pazyryk population gene pool structure must be performed to further confirm these findings.

http://www.springerlink.com/content/el1082x878766063/

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Re: Результаты исследования древней ДНК (дДНК)
« Ответ #41 : 11 Февраль 2011, 14:11:53 »
De l’ocre sur le cr?ne m?solithique (haplogroupe U5a) de Reuland-Loschbour(Grand-Duch? de Luxembourg)? // Bull. Soc. Pr?hist. Luxembourgeoise 31, 2009, 7-30

Dominique Delsate, Jean Michel Guinet et Steven Saverwyns

A red colored area is present on the left portion of the frontal bone of the mesolithic man from Loschbour. After a preliminary report of the bio-anthropological study of the skeleton, with genetic typing of mitochondrial DNA, we present our attempts to determine the nature of the pigment, by the methods of Raman spectroscopy and elemental analysis by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Ochre is proven, and its presence is discussed.

http://dienekes.blogspot.com/2011/02/mesolithic-mtdna-haplogroup-u5a-from.html

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Re: Результаты исследования древней ДНК (дДНК)
« Ответ #42 : 20 Февраль 2011, 00:33:17 »
Die mittelalterlichen Skelette von Usedom // Freder J.
http://www.diss.fu-berlin.de/diss/receive/FUDISS_thesis_000000019471

Usedom (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany) / 12 век. (стр.86)

U48a
Y-DNA: E1b1b-M215
mtDNA: H (CRS)

U54
Y-DNA: R1a1a1g-M458
mtDNA: K (16224C, 16311C)

U110
mtDNA: H (16311C)

U131
mtDNA: K (16224C, 16311C)

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Comparison of lactase persistence polymorphism in ancient and present-day Hungarian populations // American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Article first published online: 1 MAR 2011 DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.21490

Nagy et al.

The prevalence of adult-type hypolactasia varies ethnically and geographically among populations. A C/T–13910 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) upstream of the lactase gene is known to be associated with lactase non-persistence in Europeans. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of lactase persistent and non-persistent genotypes in current Hungarian-speaking populations and in ancient bone samples of classical conquerors and commoners from the 10th–11th centuries from the Carpathian basin; 181 present-day Hungarian, 65 present-day Sekler, and 23 ancient samples were successfully genotyped for the C/T-13910 SNP by the dCAPS PCR-RFLP method. Additional mitochondrial DNA testing was also carried out. In ancient Hungarians, the T-13910 allele was present only in 11% of the population, and exclusively in commoners of European mitochondrial haplogroups who may have been of pre-Hungarian indigenous ancestry. This is despite animal domestication and dairy products having been introduced into the Carpathian basin early in the Neolithic Age. This anomaly may be explained by the Hungarian use of fermented milk products, their greater consumption of ruminant meat than milk, cultural differences, or by their having other lactase-regulating genetic polymorphisms than C/T-13910. The low prevalence of lactase persistence provides additional information on the Asian origin of Hungarians. Present-day Hungarians have been assimilated with the surrounding European populations, since they do not differ significantly from the neighboring populations in their possession of mtDNA and C/T-13910 variants.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajpa.21490/abstract

   genotype   Haplogroup   Mutations in HVSI   Mutations in HVSII and coding region
1   CC   U4   356C   12308G
2   CC   N1a   147A 172C 183C 189C 223T 248T 320T 355T   +10238HphI
3   CC   J2   069T 093C 126C 193T 265T   +10871MnlI
4   CCb   U   259A 311C   -73ApaLI, +7025AluI, 12308G, +14766MseI
5   CC   HV   311C   -73ApaLI, -14766MseI, +7025AluI
6   CC   R   CRS   +73ApaLI -7025AluI 11719A 12308A +14766MseI
7   CCb   H   093C 221T   -73ApaLI, -7025AluI
8   CC   T3   126C 248T 292T 294T    10873T
9   CC   H   294T 304C   -73ApaLI, -7025AluI, -14766MseI, 10310G
10   CCb   H   189C 295T   -73ApaLI, -7025AluI, 12308A, -14766MseI
11   TT   H   CRS   -73ApaLI, -7025AluI, -14766MseI
12   CT   H   093C 366T   -73ApaLI, -7025AluI, -14766MseI
13   CC   M   223T 311C   10400T
14   CC   T2   126C 148T 218T 294T 304C
15   CC   N1a   147A 172C 183C 189C 223T 320T 355T   +10238HphI
16   CC   H   CRS   -73ApaLI, -7025AluI, +14766MseI
17   CC   X   183C 189C 223T 278T   +10871MnlI, 14470C
18   CC   T   126C 182C 183C 189C 294T 296T 298C   9 bp del
19   CC   U4   223T 356C   10400C 12308G 12705C
20   CC   JT   126C 163G 186T 189C   +10871MnlI
21   TT   H   CRS   -73ApaLI, -7025AluI, +14766MseI
22   CC   U5a1   114A 192T 256T 270T 294T   12308G
23   CC   U3   311C 343G   12308G

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Ancient DNA reveals male diffusion through the Neolithic Mediterranean route // Published online before print May 31, 2011, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1100723108, PNAS May 31, 2011

Lacan et al.

Abstract

The Neolithic is a key period in the history of the European settlement. Although archaeological and present-day genetic data suggest several hypotheses regarding the human migration patterns at this period, validation of these hypotheses with the use of ancient genetic data has been limited. In this context, we studied DNA extracted from 53 individuals buried in a necropolis used by a French local community 5,000 y ago. The relatively good DNA preservation of the samples allowed us to obtain autosomal, Y-chromosomal, and/or mtDNA data for 29 of the 53 samples studied. From these datasets, we established close parental relationships within the necropolis and determined maternal and paternal lineages as well as the absence of an allele associated with lactase persistence, probably carried by Neolithic cultures of central Europe. Our study provides an integrative view of the genetic past in southern France at the end of the Neolithic period. Furthermore, the Y-haplotype lineages characterized and the study of their current repartition in European populations confirm a greater influence of the Mediterranean than the Central European route in the peopling of southern Europe during the Neolithic transition.

Y-ДНК ---------------------
G2a (P15) - 20/22 (90.9%)
I2a (P37.2) - 2/22 (9.1%)

мт-ДНК --------------------
J1c - 6/29 (20.7%)
U5 - 4/29 (13.8%)
X2 - 4/29 (13.8%)
H3 - 3/29 (10.3%)
H1 - 3/29 (10.3%)
K1a - 2/29 (6.9%)
T2b - 2/29 (6.9%)
U5b1c - 1/29 (3.4%)
U - 1/29 (3.4%)
HV - 2/29 (3.4%)
V - 1/29 (3.4%)

http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2011/05/24/1100723108
http://www.pnas.org/content/suppl/2011/05/25/1100723108.DCSupplemental/pnas.201100723SI.pdf
http://secher.bernard.free.fr/DNA/PNAS-2011-Lacan-1100723108.pdf (полный текст)
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