АвторТема: Результаты исследования древней ДНК (дДНК)  (Прочитано 62895 раз)

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Re: Результаты исследования древней ДНК (дДНК)
« Ответ #15 : 03 Январь 2010, 22:03:00 »
Ancient DNA Reveals Lack of Continuity between Neolithic Hunter-Gatherers and Contemporary Scandinavians // Current Biology, Volume 19, Issue 20, 1758-1762, 24 September 2009

Malmstr?m et al

The driving force behind the transition from a foraging to a farming lifestyle in prehistoric Europe (Neolithization) has been debated for more than a century [1,2,3]. Of particular interest is whether population replacement or cultural exchange was responsible [3,4,5]. Scandinavia holds a unique place in this debate, for it maintained one of the last major hunter-gatherer complexes in Neolithic Europe, the Pitted Ware culture [6]. Intriguingly, these late hunter-gatherers existed in parallel to early farmers for more than a millennium before they vanished some 4,000 years ago [7,8]. The prolonged coexistence of the two cultures in Scandinavia has been cited as an argument against population replacement between the Mesolithic and the present [7,8]. Through analysis of DNA extracted from ancient Scandinavian human remains, we show that people of the Pitted Ware culture were not the direct ancestors of modern Scandinavians (including the Saami people of northern Scandinavia) but are more closely related to contemporary populations of the eastern Baltic region. Our findings support hypotheses arising from archaeological analyses that propose a Neolithic or post-Neolithic population replacement in Scandinavia [7]. Furthermore, our data are consistent with the view that the eastern Baltic represents a genetic refugia for some of the European hunter-gatherer populations.

http://www.cell.com/current-biology/abstract/S0960-9822(09)01694-7

Trichterbecher Kultur (TRB) — 4000-2700 BC   (N=3)
mtDNA: J(1), T(1), H(1)

Pitted Ware culture (PWC) — 3200-2300 BC   (N=19)
mtDNA: J(1), T(1), U4/H1b(8 ), U5(3), U5a(3), V(1), неизв(2)


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Re: Результаты исследования древней ДНК (дДНК)
« Ответ #16 : 21 Январь 2010, 22:38:55 »
A western Eurasian male is found in 2000-year-old elite Xiongnu cemetery in Northeast Mongolia // American Journal of Physical Anthropology doi:10.1002/ajpa.21242 (2010)

Kijeong Kim et al

Abstract

We analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), Y-chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNP), and autosomal short tandem repeats (STR) of three skeletons found in a 2,000-year-old Xiongnu elite cemetery in Duurlig Nars of Northeast Mongolia. This study is one of the first reports of the detailed genetic analysis of ancient human remains using the three types of genetic markers. The DNA analyses revealed that one subject was an ancient male skeleton with maternal U2e1 and paternal R1a1 haplogroups. This is the first genetic evidence that a male of distinctive Indo-European lineages (R1a1) was present in the Xiongnu of Mongolia. This might indicate an Indo-European migration into Northeast Asia 2,000 years ago. Other specimens are a female with mtDNA haplogroup D4 and a male with Y-SNP haplogroup C3 and mtDNA haplogroup D4. Those haplogroups are common in Northeast Asia. There was no close kinship among them. The genetic evidence of U2e1 and R1a1 may help to clarify the migration patterns of Indo-Europeans and ancient East-West contacts of the Xiongnu Empire. Artifacts in the tombs suggested that the Xiongnu had a system of the social stratification. The West Eurasian male might show the racial tolerance of the Xiongnu Empire and some insight into the Xiongnu society.

http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/123246661/abstract

1 (м.) - mtDNA: U2e1 // Y-DNA: R1a1a (M17)
2 (м.) - mtDNA: D4 // Y-DNA: C3 (M217)
3 (ж.) - mtDNA: D4

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Re: Результаты исследования древней ДНК (дДНК)
« Ответ #17 : 22 Январь 2010, 23:46:08 »
Paleogenetical study of pre-Columbian samples from Pampa Grande (Salta, Argentina) // American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 16 Nov 2009

Carnese et al

ABSTRACT
Ancient DNA recovered from 21 individuals excavated from burial sites in the Pampa Grande (PG) region (Salta province) of North-Western Argentina (NWA) was analyzed using various genetic markers (mitochondrial DNA, autosomal STRs, and Y chromosomal STRs). The results were compared to ancient and modern DNA from various populations in the Andean and North Argentinean regions, with the aim of establishing their relationships with PG. The mitochondrial haplogroup frequencies described (11% A, 47% B, and 42% D) presented values comparable to those found for the ancient Andean populations from Peru and San Pedro de Atacama. On the other hand, mitochondrial and Y chromosomal haplotypes were specific to PG, as they did not match any other of the South American populations studied. The described genetic diversity indicates homogeneity in the genetic structure of the ancient Andean populations, which was probably facilitated by the intense exchange network in the Andean zone, in particular among Tiwanaku, San Pedro de Atacama, and NWA. The discovery of haplotypes unique to PG could be due to a loss of genetic diversity caused by recent events affecting the autochthonous populations (establishment of the Inca Empire in the region, colonization by the Europeans).

http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/122685409/abstract

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Re: Результаты исследования древней ДНК (дДНК)
« Ответ #18 : 02 Февраль 2010, 10:36:37 »
Anthropological analysis of the osteological material from an ancient tomb (Early Bronze Age) from the middle Euphrates valley, Terqa (Syria) // International Journal of Osteoarchaeology doi:10.1002/oa.1150

ABSTRACT
Terqa, situated on the right bank of the Middle Euphrates, is known to have been a site already in the third and second millennium BC. Excavations which take place in this region aim to provide answers for numerous significant issues connected with the origins of human civilisation. In 2008 season we found a tomb dated 2650-2450 BC, consisting of two chambers with stone domes. The smaller chamber contained many luxury grave goods. The other one was bigger and contained human skeletons.
The first skeleton belonged to a man, 45/50 years old. It is extremely heavy and large. On the right humerus, near the proximal edge, we found two cuts. The healed edges of the wound suggest that the man from Terqa survived after the wound was inflicted. Many muscular attachments were clearly marked on the bones and bone robustness was far above the average, which may suggest that the skeleton belonged to a warrior. These observations correspond to the fact that the bronze part of a belt together with bronze weapon-blades was found on the right side of the hip.
The second skeleton, which belonged to a female who was about 40/44 years old, was found in an anatomical position. The chamber also contained an almost complete skeleton of a sheep. The morphology of the forearm of the female suggested strenuous activity. From this skeleton was successfully isolated HVR1 fragment. The main mutation indicated that the analysed mtDNA belonged to haplogroup K.

http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/123269018/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0

mtDNA: K
« Последнее редактирование: 02 Март 2010, 23:37:38 от Centurion »

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Re: Результаты исследования древней ДНК (дДНК)
« Ответ #19 : 11 Февраль 2010, 01:14:27 »
Ancient human genome sequence of an extinct Palaeo-Eskimo // Vol 463| 11 February 2010| doi:10.1038/nature08835

Morten Rasmussen et al.

Abstract

We report here the genome sequence of an ancient human. Obtained from ~4,000-year-old permafrost-preserved hair, the genome represents a male individual from the first known culture to settle in Greenland. Sequenced to an average depth of 20?, we recover 79% of the diploid genome, an amount close to the practical limit of current sequencing technologies. We identify 353,151 high-confidence single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), of which 6.8% have not been reported previously. We estimate raw read contamination to be no higher than 0.8%. We use functional SNP assessment to assign possible phenotypic characteristics of the individual that belonged to a culture whose location has yielded only trace human remains. We compare the high-confidence SNPs to those of contemporary populations to find the populations most closely related to the individual. This provides evidence for a migration from Siberia into the New World some 5,500 years ago, independent of that giving rise to the modern Native Americans and Inuit.

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v463/n7282/abs/nature08835.html

Y-ДНК: Q1a* (MEH2)

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Re: Результаты исследования древней ДНК (дДНК)
« Ответ #20 : 20 Февраль 2010, 13:40:07 »
Evidence that a West-East admixed population lived in the Tarim Basin as early as the early Bronze Age // BMC Biology doi:10.1186/1741-7007-8-15

Chunxiang L et al.

Abstract
The Tarim Basin, located on the ancient Silk Road, played a very important role in the history of human migration and cultural communications between the West and the East. However, both the exact period at which the relevant events occurred and the origins of the people in the area remain very obscure. In this paper, we present data from the analyses of both Y chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) derived from human remains excavated from the Xiaohe cemetery, the oldest archeological site with human remains discovered in the Tarim Basin thus far.

http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1741-7007-8-15.pdf

Y-DNA: R1a1a // mtDNA: C4 / HVR1 (298-327)
Y-DNA: R1a1a // mtDNA: C4 / HVR1 (298-327)
Y-DNA: R1a1a // mtDNA: C4 / HVR1 (298-327)
Y-DNA: R1a1a // mtDNA: C4 / HVR1 (223-298-309-327)
Y-DNA: R1a1a // mtDNA: C4 / HVR1 (298-327)
Y-DNA: R1a1a // mtDNA: R* / HVR1 (189-192-311)
Y-DNA: R1a1a // mtDNA: R* / HVR1 (183-189-192-311)

mtDNA: C4 (n=7) / HVR1 (298-327)
mtDNA: C4 (n=2) / HVR1 (223-298-309-327)
mtDNA: M* / HVR1 (223-304)
mtDNA: K / HVR1 (93-134-224-311-390)
mtDNA: H / HVR1 (260)
mtDNA: R* / HVR1 (189-192-311-390)

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Ancient DNA from nomads in 2500-year-old archeological sites of Pengyang, China // Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication 26 February 2010; doi: 10.1038/jhg.2010.8

Yong-Bin Zhao et al.

Six human remains (dating ~2500 years ago) were excavated from Pengyang, China, an area occupied by both ancient nomadic and farming people. The funerary objects found with these remains suggested they were nomads. To further confirm their ancestry, we analyzed both the maternal lineages and paternal lineages of the ancient DNA. From the mitochondrial DNA, six haplotypes were identified as three haplogroups: C, D4 and M10. The haplotype-sharing populations and phylogenetic analyses revealed that these individuals were closely associated with the ancient Xiongnu and modern northern Asians. Single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis of Y chromosomes from four male samples that were typed as haplogroup Q indicated that these people had originated in Siberia. These results show that these ancient people from Pengyang present a close genetic affinity to nomadic people, indicating that northern nomads had reached the Central Plain area of China nearly 2500 years ago.

http://www.nature.com/jhg/journal/vaop/ncurrent/abs/jhg20108a.html

Y-DNA: Q
mtDNA: C, D4, M10

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Re: Результаты исследования древней ДНК (дДНК)
« Ответ #22 : 10 Апрель 2010, 19:04:22 »
Reconstruction of a historical genealogy by means of STR analysis and Y-haplotyping of ancient DNA // European Journal of Human Genetics (1999) 7, 469–477

Gerstenberger et al.

Archaeological excavations in St Margaretha’s church at Reichersdorf, Germany, in 1993 led
to the discovery of eight skeletons, so far assumed to be of the Earls of Konigsfeld, who used
the church as a family sepulchre over a period of seven generations from 1546 to 1749. DNA-
based sex testing and analysis of autosomal short tandem repeat systems (STR) was carried out
to con?rm the assumption of kinship. Since ?ve of the individuals were determined as males,
analysis of Y-speci?c STRs seemed feasible. A comparison of Y-haplotypes revealed that one
individual could not be linked to the Konigsfeld patrilineage, an observation supported by
autosomal STR evidence. Two individuals typed as females posed an identi?cation problem,
since supposedly only male members of the family were buried in St Margaretha’s.
Nevertheless, these individuals could tentatively be identi?ed as members of the House of
Konigsfeld through genetic ?ngerprinting.
?
http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v7/n4/pdf/5200322a.pdf

Y-haplotypes of five K?nigsfeld individuals

Ind DYS19-DYS390-DYS389I-DYS389II
Ma10 14-23-12-28
Ma11 14-(24)-13-33
Ma33 14-23-12-28
Ma54 14-23-12-(28)
Ma55 14-23-12-28

По предиктору I1, кроме Ma11.
« Последнее редактирование: 10 Апрель 2010, 20:17:49 от Centurion »

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Analysis of the Putative Remains of a European Patron Saint–St. Birgitta // PLoS ONE doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0008986, 2010

Nilsson et al.

Abstract
Saint Birgitta (Saint Bridget of Sweden) lived between 1303 and 1373 and was designated one of Europe's six patron saints by the Pope in 1999. According to legend, the skulls of St. Birgitta and her daughter Katarina are maintained in a relic shrine in Vadstena abbey, mid Sweden. The origin of the two skulls was assessed first by analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to confirm a maternal relationship. The results of this analysis displayed several differences between the two individuals, thus supporting an interpretation of the two skulls not being individuals that are maternally related. Because the efficiency of PCR amplification and quantity of DNA suggested a different amount of degradation and possibly a very different age for each of the skulls, an orthogonal procedure, radiocarbon dating, was performed. The radiocarbon dating results suggest an age difference of at least 200 years and neither of the dating results coincides with the period St. Birgitta or her daughter Katarina lived. The relic, thought to originate from St. Birgitta, has an age corresponding to the 13th century (1215–1270 cal AD, 2? confidence), which is older than expected. Thus, the two different analyses are consistent in questioning the authenticity of either of the human skulls maintained in the Vadstena relic shrine being that of St. Birgitta. Of course there are limitations when interpreting the data of any ancient biological materials and these must be considered for a final decision on the authenticity of the remains.

Образец 1 - предположительно St.Birgitta (1303–1373)
H1 - 16189C, 263G, 315.1C, 3010A, 16519C

Образец 2 - предположительно ее дочь Katarina (1331–1381)
T2 - 16126C, 16294T, 16296T, 16304C, 73G, 263G, 309.1C, 315.1C, 16519C

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DNA analyses of the remains of the Prince Branciforte Barresi family // International Journal of Legal Medicine, Volume 114, Number 3 / Февраль 2001 г.

Rickards et al.

 The five skeletons found buried in the church of Militello di Catania, Sicily, were tentatively identified by morphological analysis and historical reports as the remains of Prince Branciforte Barresi, two of his children, his brother and another juvenile member of the family (sixteenth and seventeenth centuries). In order to attempt to clarify the degree of relationships of the five skeletons, sex testing and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence analysis of the hypervariable segments I and II (HV1 and HV2) of control region were performed. Moreover, the 9 bp-deletion marker of region V (COII/tRNA lys) was examined. Molecular genetic analyses were consistent with historical expectations, although they did not directly demonstrate that these are in fact the remains of the Prince and his relatives, due to the impossibility of obtaining DNA from living maternal relatives of the Prince.

Prince Branciforte Barresi  (17 век)
mtDNA: H (263G)

http://www.springerlink.com/content/d461wttpndbbab21/fulltext.pdf

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Reconstruction of Residence Patterns Through Genetic Typing of Skeletal Remains of an Early Medieval Population // Ancient Biomolecules, Volume 4, Issue 1 2002 , pages 25 - 32

Gerstenberger et al.

Abstract
The study is carried out on a randomly drawn sample of 200 individuals from the early medieval graveyard at Weingarten, Germany, dating from the 5th-8th century A.D. This skeletal population comprises 800 individuals, who show variation of their social standing through characteristic sets of grave goods that display wealth and rank differentials. Several DNA typing approaches are applied to reconstruct residence patterns in this socially stratified population. For one, the simultaneous amplification of nine autosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) generates the genetic fingerprint that is unique to an individual. Furthermore, through the analysis of Y-chromosomal STRs individuals of the same paternal lineage can be identified, whereas sequencing analysis of the hypervariable region of the mitochondrial DNA can determine which members of a population belong to the same matrilineage. Comparisons between the social groups will show if differing variabilities can be detected for the analysed DNA sequences. In the case of patrilocal residence, a high variability of mitochondrial DNA sequences should be detectable, whereas a population practising matrilocal residence should be discernible by a high number of deviating Y haplotypes. With the results of the ancient DNA typing, it should be determinable if different patterns of residence were applied in the social groups of this historical population.

http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~content=a713605259~db=all

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Re: Результаты исследования древней ДНК (дДНК)
« Ответ #26 : 02 Август 2010, 00:09:56 »
Genetic Diversity among Ancient Nordic Populations // PLoS ONE 5(7): e11898. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011898, Published: July 30, 2010

Melchior et al.

Using established criteria for work with fossil DNA we have analysed mitochondrial DNA from 92 individuals from 18 locations in Denmark ranging in time from the Mesolithic to the Medieval Age. Unequivocal assignment of mtDNA haplotypes was possible for 56 of the ancient individuals; however, the success rate varied substantially between sites; the highest rates were obtained with untouched, freshly excavated material, whereas heavy handling, archeological preservation and storage for many years influenced the ability to obtain authentic endogenic DNA. While the nucleotide diversity at two locations was similar to that among extant Danes, the diversity at four sites was considerably higher. This supports previous observations for ancient Britons. The overall occurrence of haplogroups did not deviate from extant Scandinavians, however, haplogroup I was significantly more frequent among the ancient Danes (average 13%) than among extant Danes and Scandinavians (~2.5%) as well as among other ancient population samples reported. Haplogroup I could therefore have been an ancient Southern Scandinavian type “diluted” by later immigration events. Interestingly, the two Neolithic samples (4,200 YBP, Bell Beaker culture) that were typed were haplogroup U4 and U5a, respectively, and the single Bronze Age sample (3,300–3,500 YBP) was haplogroup U4. These two haplogroups have been associated with the Mesolithic populations of Central and Northern Europe. Therefore, at least for Southern Scandinavia, our findings do not support a possible replacement of a haplogroup U dominated hunter-gatherer population by a more haplogroup diverse Neolithic Culture.

http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011898
« Последнее редактирование: 02 Август 2010, 00:16:40 от Centurion »

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Re: Результаты исследования древней ДНК (дДНК)
« Ответ #27 : 05 Август 2010, 23:48:14 »
Investigation of Ancient DNA from Western Siberia and the Sargat Culture // Human Biology 82(2):143-156. 2010

Bennett et al.

Abstract
Mitochondrial DNA from fourteen archaeological samples at the Ural State University in
Yekaterinburg, Russia was extracted to test the feasibility of ancient DNA work on their
collection. These samples come from a number of sites that fall into two groupings. Seven
samples are from three sites that belong to a northern group of what are thought to be Ugrians
dating to the 8th-12th century AD, who lived along the Ural Mountains in northwestern Siberia.
The remaining seven samples are from two sites that belong to a southern group representing the
Sargat culture, dating between roughly the 5th century BC and the 5th century AD, from
southwestern Siberia near the Ural Mountains and the present-day Kazakhstan border. The
samples derived from several burial types, including kurgan burials. They also represented a
number of different skeletal elements, as well as a range of observed preservation. The northern
sites repeatedly failed to amplify after multiple extraction and amplification attempts, but the
samples from the southern sites were successfully extracted and amplified. The sequences
obtained from the southern sites support the hypothesis that the Sargat culture was a potential
zone of intermixture between native Ugrian and/or Siberian populations and steppe peoples from
the South, possibly early Iranian or Indo-Iranian, which has been previously suggested by
archaeological analysis.

http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.3378/027.082.0202

Ugrians dates to the 8th-12th centuries AD
SK - mtDNA T1
SF - mtDNA Z

Sargat culture (5th century BC and the 5th century AD)
K2 - mtDNA A
K3T - mtDNA C
K3R - mtDNA Z

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Re: Результаты исследования древней ДНК (дДНК)
« Ответ #28 : 18 Август 2010, 23:28:24 »
News from the west: Ancient DNA from a French megalithic burial chamber // American Journal of Physical Anthropology DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.21376

Marie-France Deguilloux et al.

Recent paleogenetic studies have confirmed that the spread of the Neolithic across Europe was neither genetically nor geographically uniform. To extend existing knowledge of the mitochondrial European Neolithic gene pool, we examined six samples of human skeletal material from a French megalithic long mound (c.4200 cal BC). We retrieved HVR-I sequences from three individuals and demonstrated that in the Neolithic period the mtDNA haplogroup N1a, previously only known in central Europe, was as widely distributed as western France. Alternative scenarios are discussed in seeking to explain this result, including Mesolithic ancestry, Neolithic demic diffusion, and long-distance matrimonial exchanges. In light of the limited Neolithic ancient DNA (aDNA) data currently available, we observe that all three scenarios appear equally consistent with paleogenetic and archaeological data. In consequence, we advocate caution in interpreting aDNA in the context of the Neolithic transition in Europe. Nevertheless, our results strengthen conclusions demonstrating genetic discontinuity between modern and ancient Europeans whether through migration, demographic or selection processes, or social practices.

mtDNA: U5b, X2, N1a

Статья - http://tinyurl.com/3a8ol7t
« Последнее редактирование: 18 Август 2010, 23:58:05 от Centurion »

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Re: Результаты исследования древней ДНК (дДНК)
« Ответ #29 : 14 Октябрь 2010, 23:27:16 »
Genetic analysis of the presumptive blood from Louis XVI, king of France // published online 12 October 2010.

Carles Lalueza-Fox et al.

Abstract
A text on a pyrographically decorated gourd dated to 1793 explains that it contains a handkerchief dipped with the blood of Louis XVI, king of France, after his execution. Biochemical analyses confirmed that the material contained within the gourd was blood. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) and 2 (HVR2), the Y-chromosome STR profile, some autosomal STR markers and a SNP in HERC2 gene associated to blue eyes, were retrieved, and some results independently replicated in two different laboratories. The uncommon mtDNA sequence retrieved can be attributed to a N1b haplotype, while the novel Y-chromosome haplotype belongs to haplogroup G2a. The HERC2 gene showed that the subject analyzed was a heterozygote, which is compatible with a blue-eyed person, as king Louis XVI was. To confirm the identity of the subject, an analysis of the dried heart of his son, Louis XVII, could be undertaken.

http://www.fsigenetics.com/article/PIIS1872497310001602/

Y-ДНК: G2a
DYS389I-DYS389II-DYS390-DYS456-DYS19-DYS385a-DYS385a-DYS458-DYS437-DYS438-DYS448-YGATAH4-DYS391-DYS392-DYS393-DYS439-DYS635
12-30-22-15-15-13-18-21-15-10-21-12-10-11-14-12-21

мтДНК: N1b
HVR1 16093C, 16145A, 16176(G), 16223T
HVR2 73G, 151T, 152C, 189G, 194T, 195C, 263G, 315.1C
« Последнее редактирование: 15 Октябрь 2010, 12:53:33 от Centurion »

 

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