АвторТема: Результаты исследования древней ДНК (дДНК)  (Прочитано 63306 раз)

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Re: Результаты исследования древней ДНК (дДНК)
« Ответ #90 : 27 Январь 2014, 09:13:30 »
Derived immune and ancestral pigmentation alleles in a 7,000-year-old Mesolithic European

Iñigo Olalde, Morten E. Allentoft,   Federico Sánchez-Quinto, Gabriel Santpere, Charleston W. K. Chiang, Michael DeGiorgio,   Javier Prado-Martinez, Juan Antonio Rodríguez, Simon Rasmussen, Javier Quilez, Oscar Ramírez, Urko M. Marigorta,   Marcos Fernández-Callejo,   María Encina Prada, Julio Manuel Vidal Encinas,   Rasmus Nielsen, Mihai G. Netea, John Novembre, Richard A. Sturm, Pardis Sabeti, Tomàs Marquès-Bonet, Arcadi Navarro, Eske Willerslev & Carles Lalueza-Fox.

Nature (2014) doi:10.1038/nature12960 Received 22 October 2013 Accepted 17 December 2013 Published online 26 January 2014.

Ancient genomic sequences have started to reveal the origin and the demographic impact of farmers from the Neolithic period spreading into Europe1, 2, 3. The adoption of farming, stock breeding and sedentary societies during the Neolithic may have resulted in adaptive changes in genes associated with immunity and diet4. However, the limited data available from earlier hunter-gatherers preclude an understanding of the selective processes associated with this crucial transition to agriculture in recent human evolution. Here we sequence an approximately 7,000-year-old Mesolithic skeleton discovered at the La Braña-Arintero site in León, Spain, to retrieve a complete pre-agricultural European human genome. Analysis of this genome in the context of other ancient samples suggests the existence of a common ancient genomic signature across western and central Eurasia from the Upper Paleolithic to the Mesolithic. The La Braña individual carries ancestral alleles in several skin pigmentation genes, suggesting that the light skin of modern Europeans was not yet ubiquitous in Mesolithic times. Moreover, we provide evidence that a significant number of derived, putatively adaptive variants associated with pathogen resistance in modern Europeans were already present in this hunter-gatherer.

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature12960.html
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sra?term=PRJNA230689
« Последнее редактирование: 27 Январь 2014, 10:44:55 от пенелопа »

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Re: Результаты исследования древней ДНК (дДНК)
« Ответ #91 : 28 Январь 2014, 09:59:57 »
Separating endogenous ancient DNA from modern day contamination in a Siberian Neandertal

Pontus Skoglunda, Bernd H. Northoffb, Michael V. Shunkovc, Anatoli P. Dereviankoc, Svante Pääbob, Johannes Krauseb,d, and Mattias Jakobssona, e Author Affiliations

Abstract

One of the main impediments for obtaining DNA sequences from ancient human skeletons is the presence of contaminating modern human DNA molecules in many fossil samples and laboratory reagents. However, DNA fragments isolated from ancient specimens show a characteristic DNA damage pattern caused by miscoding lesions that differs from present day DNA sequences. Here, we develop a framework for evaluating the likelihood of a sequence originating from a model with postmortem degradation—summarized in a postmortem degradation score—which allows the identification of DNA fragments that are unlikely to originate from present day sources. We apply this approach to a contaminated Neandertal specimen from Okladnikov Cave in Siberia to isolate its endogenous DNA from modern human contaminants and show that the reconstructed mitochondrial genome sequence is more closely related to the variation of Western Neandertals than what was discernible from previous analyses. Our method opens up the potential for genomic analysis of contaminated fossil material.

http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2014/01/23/1318934111
http://www.pnas.org/content/suppl/2014/01/23/1318934111.DCSupplemental/pnas.201318934SI.pdf



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Re: Результаты исследования древней ДНК (дДНК)
« Ответ #92 : 08 Февраль 2014, 15:16:05 »
Mitochondrial Genome Sequencing in Mesolithic North East Europe Unearths a New Sub-Clade within the Broadly Distributed Human Haplogroup C1

Clio Der Sarkissianl, Paul Brotherton, Oleg Balanovsky, Jennifer E. L. Templeton, Bastien Llamas, Julien Soubrier,
Vyacheslav Moiseyev, Valery Khartanovich, Alan Cooper, Wolfgang Haak, The Genographic Consortium.

Published: February 04, 2014
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0087612

Abstract

The human mitochondrial haplogroup C1 has a broad global distribution but is extremely rare in Europe today. Recent ancient DNA evidence has demonstrated its presence in European Mesolithic individuals. Three individuals from the 7,500 year old Mesolithic site of Yuzhnyy Oleni Ostrov, Western Russia, could be assigned to haplogroup C1 based on mitochondrial hypervariable region I sequences. However, hypervariable region I data alone could not provide enough resolution to establish the phylogenetic relationship of these Mesolithic haplotypes with haplogroup C1 mitochondrial DNA sequences found today in populations of Europe, Asia and the Americas. In order to obtain high-resolution data and shed light on the origin of this European Mesolithic C1 haplotype, we target-enriched and sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of one Yuzhnyy Oleni Ostrov C1 individual. The updated phylogeny of C1 haplogroups indicated that the Yuzhnyy Oleni Ostrov haplotype represents a new distinct clade, provisionally coined “C1f”. We show that all three C1 carriers of Yuzhnyy Oleni Ostrov belong to this clade. No haplotype closely related to the C1f sequence could be found in the large current database of ancient and present-day mitochondrial genomes. Hence, we have discovered past human mitochondrial diversity that has not been observed in modern-day populations so far. The lack of positive matches in modern populations may be explained by under-sampling of rare modern C1 carriers or by demographic processes, population extinction or replacement, that may have impacted on populations of Northeast Europe since prehistoric times.

http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0087612

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Re: Результаты исследования древней ДНК (дДНК)
« Ответ #93 : 13 Февраль 2014, 08:39:33 »
The genome of a Late Pleistocene human from a Clovis burial site in western Montana

Morten Rasmussen, Sarah L. Anzick,   Michael R. Waters, Pontus Skoglund,   Michael DeGiorgio, Thomas W. Stafford Jr, Simon Rasmussen, Ida Moltke, Anders Albrechtsen, Shane M. Doyle, G. David Poznik, Valborg Gudmundsdottir,    Rachita Yadav, Anna-Sapfo Malaspinas, Samuel Stockton White V, Morten E. Allentoft, Omar E. Cornejo, Kristiina Tambets, Anders Eriksson, Peter D. Heintzman, Monika Karmin, Thorfinn Sand Korneliussen, David J. Meltzer, Tracey L. Pierre, Jesper Stenderup et al.

Nature 506, 225–229 (13 February 2014) doi:10.1038/nature13025

Received 03 November 2013 Аccepted 14 January 2014 Published online 12 February 2014

Clovis, with its distinctive biface, blade and osseous technologies, is the oldest widespread archaeological complex defined in North America, dating from 11,100 to 10,700 14C years before present (bp) (13,000 to 12,600 calendar years bp)1, 2. Nearly 50 years of archaeological research point to the Clovis complex as having developed south of the North American ice sheets from an ancestral technology3. However, both the origins and the genetic legacy of the people who manufactured Clovis tools remain under debate. It is generally believed that these people ultimately derived from Asia and were directly related to contemporary Native Americans2. An alternative, Solutrean, hypothesis posits that the Clovis predecessors emigrated from southwestern Europe during the Last Glacial Maximum4. Here we report the genome sequence of a male infant (Anzick-1) recovered from the Anzick burial site in western Montana. The human bones date to 10,705 ± 35 14C years bp (approximately 12,707–12,556 calendar years bp) and were directly associated with Clovis tools. We sequenced the genome to an average depth of 14.4× and show that the gene flow from the Siberian Upper Palaeolithic Mal’ta population5 into Native American ancestors is also shared by the Anzick-1 individual and thus happened before 12,600 years bp. We also show that the Anzick-1 individual is more closely related to all indigenous American populations than to any other group. Our data are compatible with the hypothesis that Anzick-1 belonged to a population directly ancestral to many contemporary Native Americans. Finally, we find evidence of a deep divergence in Native American populations that predates the Anzick-1 individual.

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v506/n7487/full/nature13025.html
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sra?term=SRX381032

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Re: Результаты исследования древней ДНК (дДНК)
« Ответ #94 : 24 Апрель 2014, 19:57:42 »
Genomic analysis of the blood attributed to Louis XVI (1754–1793), king of France

Iñigo Olalde, Federico Sánchez-Quinto, Debayan Datta, Urko M. Marigorta, Charleston W. K. Chiang, Juan Antonio Rodríguez,    Marcos Fernández-Callejo,    Irene González,    Magda Montfort, Laura Matas-Lalueza, Sergi Civit, Donata Luiselli, Philippe Charlier, Davide Pettener, Oscar Ramírez, Arcadi Navarro, Heinz Himmelbauer...

Received 14 November 2013 Accepted 27 March 2014 Published 24 April 2014

A pyrographically decorated gourd, dated to the French Revolution period, has been alleged to contain a handkerchief dipped into the blood of the French king Louis XVI (1754–1793) after his beheading but recent analyses of living males from two Bourbon branches cast doubts on its authenticity. We sequenced the complete genome of the DNA contained in the gourd at low coverage (~2.5×) with coding sequences enriched at a higher ~7.3× coverage. We found that the ancestry of the gourd's genome does not seem compatible with Louis XVI's known ancestry. From a functional perspective, we did not find an excess of alleles contributing to height despite being described as the tallest person in Court. In addition, the eye colour prediction supported brown eyes, while Louis XVI had blue eyes. This is the first draft genome generated from a person who lived in a recent historical period; however, our results suggest that this sample may not correspond to the alleged king.

http://www.nature.com/srep/2014/140424/srep04666/full/srep04666.html

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Population Genomic Analysis of Ancient and Modern Genomes Yields New Insights into the Genetic Ancestry of the Tyrolean Iceman and the Genetic Structure of Europe

Martin Sikora, Meredith L. Carpenter, Andres Moreno-Estrada, Brenna M. Henn, Peter A. Underhill, Federico Sánchez-Quinto, Ilenia Zara, Maristella Pitzalis, Carlo Sidore, Fabio Busonero, Andrea Maschio, Andrea Angius, Chris Jones, Сarlos D. Bustamante

Abstract

Genome sequencing of the 5,300-year-old mummy of the Tyrolean Iceman, found in 1991 on a glacier near the border of Italy and Austria, has yielded new insights into his origin and relationship to modern European populations. A key finding of that study was an apparent recent common ancestry with individuals from Sardinia, based largely on the Y chromosome haplogroup and common autosomal SNP variation. Here, we compiled and analyzed genomic datasets from both modern and ancient Europeans, including genome sequence data from over 400 Sardinians and two ancient Thracians from Bulgaria, to investigate this result in greater detail and determine its implications for the genetic structure of Neolithic Europe. Using whole-genome sequencing data, we confirm that the Iceman is, indeed, most closely related to Sardinians. Furthermore, we show that this relationship extends to other individuals from cultural contexts associated with the spread of agriculture during the Neolithic transition, in contrast to individuals from a hunter-gatherer context. We hypothesize that this genetic affinity of ancient samples from different parts of Europe with Sardinians represents a common genetic component that was geographically widespread across Europe during the Neolithic, likely related to migrations and population expansions associated with the spread of agriculture.

http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004353

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Late Pleistocene Human Skeleton and mtDNA Link Paleoamericans and Modern Native Americans

James C. Chatters,Douglas J. Kennett, Yemane Asmerom, Brian M. Kemp, Victor Polyak, Alberto Nava Blank,    Patricia A. Beddows, Eduard Reinhardt, Joaquin Arroyo-Cabrales, Deborah A. Bolnick, Ripan S. Malhi, Brendan J. Culleton, Pilar Luna Erreguerena, Dominique Rissolo, Shanti Morell-Hart, Thomas W. Stafford Jr..

Abstract
   
Because of differences in craniofacial morphology and dentition between the earliest American skeletons and modern Native Americans, separate origins have been postulated for them, despite genetic evidence to the contrary. We describe a near-complete human skeleton with an intact cranium and preserved DNA found with extinct fauna in a submerged cave on Mexico’s Yucatan Peninsula. This skeleton dates to between 13,000 and 12,000 calendar years ago and has Paleoamerican craniofacial characteristics and a Beringian-derived mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup (D1). Thus, the differences between Paleoamericans and Native Americans probably resulted from in situ evolution rather than separate ancestry.

http://www.sciencemag.org/content/344/6185/750

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Strong genetic admixture in the Altai at the Middle Bronze Age revealed by uniparental and ancestry informative markers

Clémence Hollarda, Christine Keysera, Pierre-Henri Giscardb, Turbat Tsagaanc, Noost Bayarkhuuc, Jan Bemmannd, Eric Crubézye, Bertrand Ludese.

Abstract

The Altai Mountains have been a long term boundary zone between the Eurasian Steppe populations and South and East Asian populations. To disentangle some of the historical population movements in this area, 14 ancient human specimens excavated in the westernmost part of the Mongolian Altai were studied. Thirteen of them were dated from the Middle to the End of the Bronze Age and one of them to the Eneolithic period. The environmental conditions encountered in this region led to the good preservation of DNA in the human remains. Therefore, a multi-markers approach was adopted for the genetic analysis of identity, ancestry and phenotype markers. Mitochondrial DNA analyses revealed that the ancient Altaians studied carried both Western (H, U, T) and Eastern (A, C, D) Eurasian lineages. In the same way, the patrilineal gene pool revealed the presence of different haplogroups (Q1a2a1-L54, R1a1a1b2-Z93 and C), probably marking different origins for the male paternal lineages. To go further in the search of the origin of these ancient specimens, phenotypical characters (ie: hair and eye colour) were determined. For this purpose, we adapted the HIrisPlex assay recently described to MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. In addition, some ancestry informative markers were analyzed with this assay. The results revealed mixed phenotypes among this group confirming the probable admixed ancestry of the studied Altaian population at the Middle Bronze Age. The good results obtained from ancient DNA samples suggest that this approach might be relevant for forensic casework too.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1872497314001161
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Ancient DNA Analysis of 8000 B.C. Near Eastern Farmers Supports an Early Neolithic Pioneer Maritime Colonization of Mainland Europe through Cyprus and the Aegean Islands

Eva Fernández, Alejandro Pérez-Pérez, Cristina Gamba, Eva Prats, Pedro Cuesta, Josep Anfruns, Miquel Molist, Eduardo Arroyo-Pardo, Daniel Turbón.

Abstract

The genetic impact associated to the Neolithic spread in Europe has been widely debated over the last 20 years. Within this context, ancient DNA studies have provided a more reliable picture by directly analyzing the protagonist populations at different regions in Europe. However, the lack of available data from the original Near Eastern farmers has limited the achieved conclusions, preventing the formulation of continental models of Neolithic expansion. Here we address this issue by presenting mitochondrial DNA data of the original Near-Eastern Neolithic communities with the aim of providing the adequate background for the interpretation of Neolithic genetic data from European samples. Sixty-three skeletons from the Pre Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) sites of Tell Halula, Tell Ramad and Dja'de El Mughara dating between 8,700–6,600 cal. B.C. were analyzed, and 15 validated mitochondrial DNA profiles were recovered. In order to estimate the demographic contribution of the first farmers to both Central European and Western Mediterranean Neolithic cultures, haplotype and haplogroup diversities in the PPNB sample were compared using phylogeographic and population genetic analyses to available ancient DNA data from human remains belonging to the Linearbandkeramik-Alföldi Vonaldiszes Kerámia and Cardial/Epicardial cultures. We also searched for possible signatures of the original Neolithic expansion over the modern Near Eastern and South European genetic pools, and tried to infer possible routes of expansion by comparing the obtained results to a database of 60 modern populations from both regions. Comparisons performed among the 3 ancient datasets allowed us to identify K and N-derived mitochondrial DNA haplogroups as potential markers of the Neolithic expansion, whose genetic signature would have reached both the Iberian coasts and the Central European plain. Moreover, the observed genetic affinities between the PPNB samples and the modern populations of Cyprus and Crete seem to suggest that the Neolithic was first introduced into Europe through pioneer seafaring colonization.

http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004401

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Re: Результаты исследования древней ДНК (дДНК)
« Ответ #99 : 13 Август 2014, 07:14:55 »
О культурной, антропологической и генетической специфике донских алан // Е.И. Крупнов и развитие археологии Северного Кавказа. М. 2014. С. 312-315

Афанасьев Г.Е., Добровольская М.В., Коробов Д.С., Решетова И.К.

"Для анализа аланского палео-ДНК на уровне гаплогрупп (лабораторные работы выполнены В.В. Ильинским), были отобраны 12 образцов человеческих зубов и фрагментов костей из катакомбных могильников. Исследование мужской линии проводилось путем анализа 23 микросателлитных локусов (STR) Y-хромосомы человека. Определение гаплогруппы женской линии осуществлялось изучением гипервариабельных регионов мтДНК. Задача состояла в выявлении нуклеотидных последовательностей гипервариабельных регионов HVS-1, HVS-2, HVS -3 мтДНК с последующим определением гаплогруппы индивидуумов и предсказаний путей миграции. В итоге, в 6 образцах была обнаружена гаплогруппа G2 и в 6 образцах - женская гаплогруппа I."

https://www.academia.edu/7061155/_._._._._._._._._._._._._2014._._312-315
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Re: Результаты исследования древней ДНК (дДНК)
« Ответ #100 : 15 Август 2014, 21:14:21 »
Mitochondrial DNA from El Mirador Cave (Atapuerca, Spain) Reveals the Heterogeneity of Chalcolithic Populations

Daniel Gómez-Sánchez, Iñigo Olalde, Federica Pierini, Laura Matas-Lalueza, Elena Gigli, Martina Lari, Sergi Civit, Marina Lozano, Josep Maria Vergès, David Caramelli, Oscar Ramírez, Carles Lalueza-Fox.

Published: August 12, 2014

Abstract

Previous mitochondrial DNA analyses on ancient European remains have suggested that the current distribution of haplogroup H was modeled by the expansion of the Bell Beaker culture (ca 4,500–4,050 years BP) out of Iberia during the Chalcolithic period. However, little is known on the genetic composition of contemporaneous Iberian populations that do not carry the archaeological tool kit defining this culture. Here we have retrieved mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from 19 individuals from a Chalcolithic sample from El Mirador cave in Spain, dated to 4,760–4,200 years BP and we have analyzed the haplogroup composition in the context of modern and ancient populations. Regarding extant African, Asian and European populations, El Mirador shows affinities with Near Eastern groups. In different analyses with other ancient samples, El Mirador clusters with Middle and Late Neolithic populations from Germany, belonging to the Rössen, the Salzmünde and the Baalberge archaeological cultures but not with contemporaneous Bell Beakers. Our analyses support the existence of a common genetic signal between Western and Central Europe during the Middle and Late Neolithic and points to a heterogeneous genetic landscape among Chalcolithic groups.

http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0105105

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Re: Результаты исследования древней ДНК (дДНК)
« Ответ #101 : 15 Август 2014, 21:19:51 »
Analysis of the Mitochondrial Genome of a Novosvobodnaya Culture Representative using Next-Generation Sequencing and Its Relation to the Funnel Beaker Culture

A. V. Nedoluzhko, E. S. Boulygina, A. S. Sokolov, S. V. Tsygankova, N. M. Gruzdeva, A. D. Rezepkin, and E. B. Prokhortchouk.

Abstract

The Novosvobodnaya culture is known as a Bronze Age archaeological culture in the North Caucasus region of Southern Russia. It dates back to the middle of the 4th millennium B.C. and seems to have occurred during the time of the Maikop culture. There are now two hypotheses about the emergence of the Novosvobodnaya culture. One hypothesis suggests that the Novosvobodnaya culture was a phase of the Maikop culture, whereas the other one classifies it as an independent event based on the material culture items found in graves. Comparison between Novosvobodnaya pottery and Funnelbeaker (TRB) pottery from Germany has allowed researchers to suggest that the Novosvobodnaya culture developed under the influence of Indo-European culture. Nevertheless, the origin of the Novosvobodnaya culture remains a matter of debate. We applied next-generation sequencing to study ~5000-year-old human remains from the Klady kurgan grave in Novosvobodnaya stanitsa (now the Republic of Adygea, Russia). A total of 58,771,105 reads were generated using Illumina GAIIx with a coverage depth of 13.4x over the mitochondrial (mt) DNA genome. The mtDNA haplogroup affiliation was determined as V7, suggesting a role of the TRB culture in the development of the Novosvobodnaya culture and supporting the model of sharing between Novosvobodnaya and early Indo-European cultures.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4115223/

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Re: Результаты исследования древней ДНК (дДНК)
« Ответ #102 : 20 Август 2014, 07:21:01 »
Ancient DNA evidence reveals that the Y chromosome haplogroup Q1a1 admixed into the Han Chinese 3,000 years ago

Yong-Bin Zhao and all.

Article first published online: 18 AUG 2014

Abstract

Objectives

Y chromosome haplogroup Q1a1 is found almost only in Han Chinese populations. However, it has not been found in ancient Han Chinese samples until now. Thus, the origin of haplogroup Q1a1 in Han Chinese is still obscure. This study attempts to provide answer to this question, and to uncover the origin and paternal genetic structure of the ancestors of the Han Chinese.
Methods

Eighty-nine ancient human remains that were excavated from the presumed geographic source of the Han Chinese and dated to approximately 3,000 years ago were treated by the amelogenin gene polymerase chain reaction test, to determine their sex. Then, Y chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms were subsequently analyzed from the samples detected as male.
Results

Samples from 27 individuals were successfully amplified. Their haplotypes could be attributed to haplogroups N, O*, O2a, O3a, and Q1a1. Analyses showed that the assigned haplogroup of each sample is correlated to the suspected social status and observed burial custom associated with the sample.
Conclusions

The origins of the observed haplotypes and their distribution in present day Han Chinese and in the samples suggest that haplogroup Q1a1 was probably introduced into the Han Chinese population approximately 3,000 years ago. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajhb.22604/abstract

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Re: Результаты исследования древней ДНК (дДНК)
« Ответ #103 : 29 Август 2014, 15:11:16 »
The genetic prehistory of the New World Arctic

Science 29 August 2014:
Vol. 345 no. 6200
DOI: 10.1126/science.1255832

Maanasa Raghavan, Michael DeGiorgio, Anders Albrechtsen, Ida Moltke, Pontus Skoglund...

Introduction

Humans first peopled the North American Arctic (northern Alaska, Canada, and Greenland) around 6000 years ago, leaving behind a complex archaeological record that consisted of different cultural units and distinct ways of life, including the Early Paleo-Eskimos (Pre-Dorset/Saqqaq), the Late Paleo-Eskimos (Early Dorset, Middle Dorset, and Late Dorset), and the Thule cultures.

Results

Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA data unequivocally show that the Paleo-Eskimos are closer to each other than to any other present-day population. The Thule culture represents a distinct people that are genetic and cultural ancestors of modern-day Inuit. We additionally find the Siberian Birnirk culture (6th to 7th century CE) as likely cultural and genetic ancestors of the Thule. The extinct Sadlermiut people from the Hudson Bay region (15th to 19th century CE), considered to be Dorset remnants, are genetically closely related to Thule/Inuit, rather than the Paleo-Eskimos. Moreover, there is no evidence of matrilineal gene flow between Dorset or Thule groups with neighboring Norse (Vikings) populations settling in the Arctic around 1000 years ago. However, we do detect gene flow between the Paleo-Eskimo and Neo-Eskimo lineages, dating back to at least 4000 years.

http://www.sciencemag.org/content/345/6200/1255832

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Re: Результаты исследования древней ДНК (дДНК)
« Ответ #104 : 01 Сентябрь 2014, 21:38:13 »
Toward a new history and geography of human genes informed by ancient DNA

Joseph K. Pickrelle, David Reichemail.

Highlights

    •Migration and population mixture have been pervasive in human history.
    •Ancient DNA provides a new perspective on human history and adaptation.

Genetic information contains a record of the history of our species, and technological advances have transformed our ability to access this record. Many studies have used genome-wide data from populations today to learn about the peopling of the globe and subsequent adaptation to local conditions. Implicit in this research is the assumption that the geographic locations of people today are informative about the geographic locations of their ancestors in the distant past. However, it is now clear that long-range migration, admixture, and population replacement subsequent to the initial out-of-Africa expansion have altered the genetic structure of most of the world's human populations. In light of this we argue that it is time to critically reevaluate current models of the peopling of the globe, as well as the importance of natural selection in determining the geographic distribution of phenotypes. We specifically highlight the transformative potential of ancient DNA. By accessing the genetic make-up of populations living at archaeologically known times and places, ancient DNA makes it possible to directly track migrations and responses to natural selection.

http://www.cell.com/trends/genetics/abstract/S0168-9525%2814%2900120-6

 

© 2007 Молекулярная Генеалогия (МолГен)

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