АвторТема: Результаты исследования древней ДНК (дДНК)  (Прочитано 63539 раз)

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Re: Результаты исследования древней ДНК (дДНК)
« Ответ #75 : 24 Апрель 2013, 16:59:01 »
Study of Siberian population movements: use of multiple markers

Ludes B.

Institut de médecine légale, 11, rue Humann 67085--Strasbourg cedex. Ludes@unistra.fr Ludes@unistra.fr

Abstract

To further explore early Eurasian steppe migration, we determined the Y chromosome and mitochondrial haplotypes of 26 ancient human specimens from the Krasnoyarsk area, dated between the middle of the second millennium BC and the fourth century AD. Our autosomal Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA analyses reveal that, whereas few specimens seem to be related matrilineally or patrilineally, nearly all the subjects belong to haplogroup R1a1--M17, which is thought to mark the eastward migration of early Indo-Europeans. Our results also confirm that, during the Bronze and Iron Ages, southern Siberia was a region of overwhelming European settlement.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23596857#%3E

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A European population in Minoan Bronze Age Crete

    Jeffery R. Hughey,   
    Peristera Paschou,   
    Petros Drineas,   
    Donald Mastropaolo,   
    Dimitra M. Lotakis,   
    Patrick A. Navas,   
    Manolis Michalodimitrakis,   
    John A. Stamatoyannopoulos   
    & George Stamatoyannopoulos
    Nature Communications
   
Article number: 1861doi:10.1038/ncomms2871 Received 31 December 2012 Accepted 12 April 2013 Published 14 May 2013

Abstract

The first advanced Bronze Age civilization of Europe was established by the Minoans about 5,000 years before present. Since Sir Arthur Evans exposed the Minoan civic centre of Knossos, archaeologists have speculated on the origin of the founders of the civilization. Evans proposed a North African origin; Cycladic, Balkan, Anatolian and Middle Eastern origins have also been proposed. Here we address the question of the origin of the Minoans by analysing mitochondrial DNA from Minoan osseous remains from a cave ossuary in the Lassithi plateau of Crete dated 4,400–3,700 years before present. Shared haplotypes, principal component and pairwise distance analyses refute the Evans North African hypothesis. Minoans show the strongest relationships with Neolithic and modern European populations and with the modern inhabitants of the Lassithi plateau. Our data are compatible with the hypothesis of an autochthonous development of the Minoan civilization by the descendants of the Neolithic settlers of the island.

http://www.nature.com/ncomms/journal/v4/n5/full/ncomms2871.html

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Ancient DNA Analysis of Mid-Holocene Individuals from the Northwest Coast of North America Reveals Different Evolutionary Paths for Mitogenomes

Yinqiu Cui, John Lindo, Cris E. Hughes, Jesse W. Johnson, Alvaro G. Hernandez, Brian M. Kemp, Jian Ma, Ryan Cunningham, Barbara Petzelt, Joycellyn Mitchell, David Archer, Jerome S. Cybulski, Ripan S. Malhi

Abstract

To gain a better understanding of North American population history, complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) were generated from four ancient and three living individuals of the northern Northwest Coast of North America, specifically the north coast of British Columbia, Canada, current home to the indigenous Tsimshian, Haida, and Nisga’a. The mitogenomes of all individuals were previously unknown and assigned to new sub-haplogroup designations D4h3a7, A2ag and A2ah. The analysis of mitogenomes allows for more detailed analyses of presumed ancestor–descendant relationships than sequencing only the HVSI region of the mitochondrial genome, a more traditional approach in local population studies. The results of this study provide contrasting examples of the evolution of Native American mitogenomes. Those belonging to sub-haplogroups A2ag and A2ah exhibit temporal continuity in this region for 5000 years up until the present day. Of possible associative significance is that archaeologically identified house structures in this region maintain similar characteristics for this same period of time, demonstrating cultural continuity in residence patterns. The individual dated to 6000 years before present (BP) exhibited a mitogenome belonging to sub-haplogroup D4h3a. This sub-haplogroup was earlier identified in the same general area at 10300 years BP on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska, and may have gone extinct, as it has not been observed in any living individuals of the Northwest Coast. The presented case studies demonstrate the different evolutionary paths of mitogenomes over time on the Northwest Coast.

Received: March 11, 2013; Accepted: May 10, 2013; Published: July 3, 2013

http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0066948




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Re: Результаты исследования древней ДНК (дДНК)
« Ответ #78 : 13 Сентябрь 2013, 08:39:54 »
mtDNA from the Early Bronze Age to the Roman Period Suggests a Genetic Link between the Indian Subcontinent and Mesopotamian Cradle of Civilization

Henryk W. Witas, Jacek Tomczyk, Krystyna Jędrychowska-Dańska, Gyaneshwer Chaubey, Tomasz Płoszaj

Received: May 22, 2013; Accepted: July 20, 2013; Published: September 11, 2013

Abstract

Ancient DNA methodology was applied to analyse sequences extracted from freshly unearthed remains (teeth) of 4 individuals deeply deposited in slightly alkaline soil of the Tell Ashara (ancient Terqa) and Tell Masaikh (ancient Kar-Assurnasirpal) Syrian archaeological sites, both in the middle Euphrates valley. Dated to the period between 2.5 Kyrs BC and 0.5 Kyrs AD the studied individuals carried mtDNA haplotypes corresponding to the M4b1, M49 and/or M61 haplogroups, which are believed to have arisen in the area of the Indian subcontinent during the Upper Paleolithic and are absent in people living today in Syria. However, they are present in people inhabiting today’s Tibet, Himalayas, India and Pakistan. We anticipate that the analysed remains from Mesopotamia belonged to people with genetic affinity to the Indian subcontinent since the distribution of identified ancient haplotypes indicates solid link with populations from the region of South Asia-Tibet (Trans-Himalaya). They may have been descendants of migrants from much earlier times, spreading the clades of the macrohaplogroup M throughout Eurasia and founding regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or just merchants moving along trade routes passing near or through the region. None of the successfully identified nuclear alleles turned out to be ΔF508 CFTR, LCT-13910T or Δ32 CCR5.

http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0073682

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Re: Результаты исследования древней ДНК (дДНК)
« Ответ #79 : 26 Сентябрь 2013, 00:44:06 »
Y-chromosomal analysis identifies the skeletal remains of Swiss national hero Jörg Jenatsch (1596–1639) // Forensic Science International: Genetics, Available online 27 August 2013

Jörg Jenatsch was a Swiss defender of independence and a fighter for liberty in the 17th century. With the help of three living male members of the Jenatsch family, we successfully identified a skeleton exhumed from Chur cathedral as the remains of Jörg Jenatsch. Our conclusion was based upon complete Y-STR and Y-SNP profiles that could be generated by replicate analyses of a bone sample available to us. The skeleton and the three living family members carried the same Y-SNP haplogroup, but were discordant at three of 23 Y-STR loci. This notwithstanding, conservative biostatistical evaluation of the data suggests that the Chur skeleton is at least 20 times more likely than not to be Jörg Jenatsch.

Y-ДНК: R1b1a2a1a2b -U152
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J%C3%B6rg_Jenatsch

http://www.sciencedirect.com.sci-hub.org/science/article/pii/S1872497313001804

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Re: Результаты исследования древней ДНК (дДНК)
« Ответ #80 : 09 Октябрь 2013, 15:00:50 »
Genetic genealogy reveals true Y haplogroup of House of Bourbon contradicting recent identification of the presumed remains of two French Kings // European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication 9 October 2013;   doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2013.211

Larmuseau et al.

Genetic analysis strongly increases the opportunity to identify skeletal remains or other biological samples from historical figures. However, validation of this identification is essential and should be done by DNA typing of living relatives. Based on the similarity of a limited set of Y-STRs, a blood sample and a head were recently identified as those belonging respectively to King Louis XVI and his paternal ancestor King Henry IV. Here, we collected DNA samples from three living males of the House of Bourbon to validate the since then controversial identification of these remains. The three living relatives revealed the Bourbon’s Y-chromosomal variant on a high phylogenetic resolution for several members of the lineage between Henry IV and Louis XVI. This ‘true’ Bourbon’s variant is different from the published Y-STR profiles of the blood as well as of the head. The earlier identifications of these samples can therefore not be validated. Moreover, matrilineal genealogical data revealed that the published mtDNA sequence of the head was also different from the one of a series of relatives. This therefore leads to the conclusion that the analyzed samples were not from the French kings. Our study once again demonstrated that in order to realize an accurate genetic identification of historical remains DNA typing of living persons, who are paternally or maternally related with the presumed donor of the samples, is required.

http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/vaop/ncurrent/abs/ejhg2013211a.html

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Re: Результаты исследования древней ДНК (дДНК)
« Ответ #81 : 11 Октябрь 2013, 07:43:45 »
Ancient DNA Reveals Key Stages in the Formation of Central European Mitochondrial Genetic Diversity

Science 11 October 2013: Vol. 342 no. 6155 pp. 257-261 DOI: 10.1126/science.1241844

Guido Brandt, Wolfgang Haak, Сhristina J. Adler, Christina Roth, Anna Szécsényi-Nagy, Sarah Karimnia, Sabine Möller-Rieker, Harald Meller, Robert Ganslmeier, Susanne Friederich, Veit Dresely, Nicole Nicklisch, Joseph K. Pickrell, Frank Sirocko, David Reich, Alan Cooper, Kurt W. Alt, The Genographic Consortium

Abstract

The processes that shaped modern European mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation remain unclear. The initial peopling by Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers ~42,000 years ago and the immigration of Neolithic farmers into Europe ~8000 years ago appear to have played important roles but do not explain present-day mtDNA diversity. We generated mtDNA profiles of 364 individuals from prehistoric cultures in Central Europe to perform a chronological study, spanning the Early Neolithic to the Early Bronze Age (5500 to 1550 calibrated years before the common era). We used this transect through time to identify four marked shifts in genetic composition during the Neolithic period, revealing a key role for Late Neolithic cultures in shaping modern Central European genetic diversity.

http://www.sciencemag.org/content/342/6155/257.abstract?sid=325e28d8-a64a-4c2b-b3bf-1e0d7d603f23

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Re: Результаты исследования древней ДНК (дДНК)
« Ответ #82 : 14 Октябрь 2013, 22:03:50 »
Reconstruction of the Lineage Y Chromosome Haplotype of Napoléon the First.

Gerard Lucotte*, Jacques Macé, Peter Hrechdakian (2013)
International Journal of Sciences 2(9):127-139.

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Re: Результаты исследования древней ДНК (дДНК)
« Ответ #83 : 27 Октябрь 2013, 19:46:20 »
Генетическое разнообразие меотов
И.Ю. Морозова и другие

Between Don and Kuban: The genetic diversity of the Meotis
Morozova et al.

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Целью нашей работы было дополнить имеющиеся сведения о меотах данными об их ге-
нетическом разнообразии. Для этого был проанализирован полиморфизм линий мито-
хондриальной ДНК (мтДНК) у донских и кубанских меотов II в. до н.э. – III в. н.э., представлен-
ных палеоантропологическими материалами из могильников Нижнегниловской, Кобяковский
и Виноградный 1.
Анализ генетического разнообразия показал, что генофонд меотов составляют линии
мтДНК, относящиеся ко всем основным западноевразийским кластерам (N*, R0, JT, UK).

Филогенетический анализ гаплотипов, выявленных у меотов, и их дериватов, указывает на глу-
бокую древность генофонда меотов, сравнимую со временем существования индоевропейской
общности. Генетические расстояния свидетельствуют о значительном удалении меотов от ин-
доиранских, в том числе иранских, народов и, в то же время, сближении с пулом народов Европы.
Таким образом, полученные данные позволяют усомниться в гипотезах о принадлежности меотов
к иранцам и индоиранцам.
Исследуя особенности географической структуры меотов, было проведено сравнительное
исследование генофондов меотов и их кочевых соседей – сарматов, генетическая структура ко-
торых показала безусловное иранское происхождение их генофонда. Филогенетический
анализ позволил выделить в генофонде меотов Приазовья общий с сарматами пул генетических
линий. Однако генетические расстояния и анализ генетического разнообразия меотов в целом
указывают, что выявленные тенденции носили, вероятнее всего, локальный характер, не являясь
указателем на системное слияние генофондов этих народов.
Являясь древними насельниками южнорусских степей, меоты не могли не оказать генетиче-
ского влияния на народы Кавказа. Анализ генетических расстояний между меотами и кавказскими
этносами показал, что меоты, проявляя генетическую близость к ряду коренных кавказских на-
родов, тем не менее, особенно не сближаются ни с одним из них. Полученные данные позволяют
считать меотов коренным и очень древним населением южнорусских степей.

Из сборника статей по материалам Донских антропологических чтений, 2013 год

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Re: Результаты исследования древней ДНК (дДНК)
« Ответ #84 : 27 Октябрь 2013, 23:32:05 »
Использование нерекомбинантных маркеров Y-хромосомы
в исследованиях древних популяций (на примере поселения Танаис)

И.В. Корниенко, Д.И. Водолажский

Южный федеральный университет, Ростов-на-Дону, Россия,
Ростовский научно-исследовательский онкологический институт, Ростов-на-Дону, Россия,

The application of non-recombinant markers of the Y-chromosome in the study of ancient populations: The case of Tanais
Kornienko et al, 2013

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Впервые при исследовании скелетированных останков древних людей, заселявших Юг современной России в низовьях реки Дон, применена методика ДНК-типирования по маркерам ядерной (хромосомной) ДНК с использованием локусов Y-хромосомы (система детекции AmpFLSTR® Yfiler® PCR Amplification Kit, Applied Biosystems®). Примененная нами система детекции позволяет проводить амплификацию 17 Y-STR локусов. Данный подход разрешает достичь высокой степени дискриминации анализируемых образцов в одной PCR-реакции с размером получаемых и анализируемых ампликонов менее 340 bp.ДНК из костных фрагментов выделяли следующим образом: костные фрагменты промывали проточной водой, верхний слой компакты отскабливали стерильным скальпелем, далее промывали дистиллированной водой. Костные фрагменты инкубировали в течение 3 минут в 7 мМ растворе гипохлорита кальция, затем промывали стерильной деионизованной водой. После высушивания кости измельчали в металлической ступке из нержавеющей стали, затем в шаровой вибрационной мельнице MM 400 (Retsch). Получали приблизительно по 1 г костной стружки от каждого фрагмента. Костную стружку каждого объекта помещали в стерильные 15 мл пробирки. В пробирки с костными стружками добавляли по 5 мл 0,5 М раствора ЭДТА, 250 мкл раствора протеиназы К (10 мг/мл) и 200 мкл 1 М дитиотрейтола. Смесь инкубировали 24 часа при температуре +56 °С. После этого пробирки инкубировали при 60 °С 10 мин в аппарате «FinnSonic m15» при включенном ультразвуке. Затем в пробирки с образцами дополнительно вносили по 200 мкл раствора протеиназы К (10 мг/мл) и инкубировали еще сутки.

В результате проведенного исследования нами были обнаружены 9 аллельных вариантов исследованных образцов Y-хромосомы: 13-ая аллель локуса DYS389I (156.43 bp), 30-ая аллель локуса DYS389II (277.63 bp), 15-ая аллель локуса DYS458 (134.87 bp), 11-ая аллель локуса DYS385 (259.04 bp), 13-ая аллель локуса DYS393 (119.89 bp), 11-ая аллель локуса DYS391 (167.94 bp), 23-ая аллель локуcа DYS635 (258.49 bp), 14-ая аллель локуса DYS437 (186.45 bp), 19-ая аллель локуса DYS448 (292.70 bp). Как следует из приведенных нами данных, максимальный размер сохранившегося локуса Y-хромосомы составил 292.70 bp (DYS448).Данное исследование открывает хорошие перспективы для проведения молекулярногенетических исследований скелетированных останков древних людей на Юге России по маркерам не только митохондриальной, но и ядерной ДНК возрастом не менее 3000 лет. Установлена принадлежность исследуемых останков человека к Y-гаплотипу R1a, корреллирующему с индоевропейской языковой группой.

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Re: Результаты исследования древней ДНК (дДНК)
« Ответ #85 : 21 Ноябрь 2013, 12:37:20 »
Upper Palaeolithic Siberian genome reveals dual ancestry of Native Americans

    Maanasa Raghavan,   
    Pontus Skoglund,   
    Kelly E. Graf,   
    Mait Metspalu,   
    Anders Albrechtsen,   
    Ida Moltke,   
    Simon Rasmussen,   
    Thomas W. Stafford Jr,   
    Ludovic Orlando,   
    Ene Metspalu,   
    Monika Karmin,   
    Kristiina Tambets,   
    Siiri Rootsi,   
    Reedik Mägi,   
    Paula F. Campos,   
    Elena Balanovska,   
    Oleg Balanovsky,   
    Elza Khusnutdinova,   
    Sergey Litvinov,   
    Ludmila P. Osipova,   
    Sardana A. Fedorova,   
    Mikhail I. Voevoda,   
    Michael DeGiorgio,   
    Thomas Sicheritz-Ponten,   
    Søren Brunak   

    Nature (2013) doi:10.1038/nature12736

Received 14 July 2013 Accepted 04 October 2013 Published online 20 November 2013

The origins of the First Americans remain contentious. Although Native Americans seem to be genetically most closely related to east Asians1, 2, 3, there is no consensus with regard to which specific Old World populations they are closest to4, 5, 6, 7, 8. Here we sequence the draft genome of an approximately 24,000-year-old individual (MA-1), from Mal’ta in south-central Siberia9, to an average depth of 1×. To our knowledge this is the oldest anatomically modern human genome reported to date. The MA-1 mitochondrial genome belongs to haplogroup U, which has also been found at high frequency among Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic European hunter-gatherers10, 11, 12, and the Y chromosome of MA-1 is basal to modern-day western Eurasians and near the root of most Native American lineages5. Similarly, we find autosomal evidence that MA-1 is basal to modern-day western Eurasians and genetically closely related to modern-day Native Americans, with no close affinity to east Asians. This suggests that populations related to contemporary western Eurasians had a more north-easterly distribution 24,000 years ago than commonly thought. Furthermore, we estimate that 14 to 38% of Native American ancestry may originate through gene flow from this ancient population. This is likely to have occurred after the divergence of Native American ancestors from east Asian ancestors, but before the diversification of Native American populations in the New World. Gene flow from the MA-1 lineage into Native American ancestors could explain why several crania from the First Americans have been reported as bearing morphological characteristics that do not resemble those of east Asians2, 13. Sequencing of another south-central Siberian, Afontova Gora-2 dating to approximately 17,000 years ago14, revealed similar autosomal genetic signatures as MA-1, suggesting that the region was continuously occupied by humans throughout the Last Glacial Maximum. Our findings reveal that western Eurasian genetic signatures in modern-day Native Americans derive not only from post-Columbian admixture, as commonly thought, but also from a mixed ancestry of the First Americans.

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature12736.html

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Re: Результаты исследования древней ДНК (дДНК)
« Ответ #86 : 05 Декабрь 2013, 08:35:47 »
A mitochondrial genome sequence of a hominin from Sima de los Huesos

Matthias Meyer,    Qiaomei Fu,    Ayinuer Aximu-Petri,    Isabelle Glocke,    Birgit Nickel,    Juan-Luis Arsuaga,    Ignacio Martínez,    Ana Gracia,    José María Bermúdez de Castro,    Eudald Carbonell  &  Svante Pääbo

Nature (2013) doi:10.1038/nature12788
Received 10 September 2013 Accepted 17 October 2013 Published 04 December 2013

Excavations of a complex of caves in the Sierra de Atapuerca in northern Spain have unearthed hominin fossils that range in age from the early Pleistocene to the Holocene1. One of these sites, the ‘Sima de los Huesos’ (‘pit of bones’), has yielded the world’s largest assemblage of Middle Pleistocene hominin fossils2, 3, consisting of at least 28 individuals4 dated to over 300,000 years ago5. The skeletal remains share a number of morphological features with fossils classified as Homo heidelbergensis and also display distinct Neanderthal-derived traits6, 7, 8. Here we determine an almost complete mitochondrial genome sequence of a hominin from Sima de los Huesos and show that it is closely related to the lineage leading to mitochondrial genomes of Denisovans9, 10, an eastern Eurasian sister group to Neanderthals. Our results pave the way for DNA research on hominins from the Middle Pleistocene.

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature12788.html
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/KF683087

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« Ответ #87 : 17 Декабрь 2013, 14:43:51 »
Ancient DNA insights from the Middle Neolithic in Germany // Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences, December 2013

Esther J. Lee et al.

Genetic studies of Neolithic groups in central Europe have provided insights into the demographic processes that have occurred during the initial transition to agriculture as well as in later Neolithic contexts. While distinct genetic patterns between indigenous hunter-gatherers and Neolithic farmers in Europe have been observed, it is still under discussion how the genetic diversity changed during the 5,000-year span of the Neolithic period. In order to investigate genetic patterns after the earliest farming communities, we carried out an ancient mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis of 34 individuals from Wittmar, Germany representing three different Neolithic farming groups (ca. 5,200–4,300 cal bc) including Rössen societies. Ancient DNA analysis was successful for six individuals associated with the Middle Neolithic Rössen and observed haplotypes were assigned to mtDNA haplogroups H5, HV0, U5, and K. Our results offer perspectives on the genetic composition of individuals associated with the Rössen culture at Wittmar and permit insights into genetic landscapes in central Europe at a time when regional groups first emerged during the Middle Neolithic.

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12520-013-0173-0

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Re: Результаты исследования древней ДНК (дДНК)
« Ответ #88 : 19 Декабрь 2013, 09:13:58 »
The complete genome sequence of a Neanderthal from the Altai Mountains

Kay Prüfer,  Fernando Racimo, Nick Patterson, Flora Jay, Sriram Sankararaman, Susanna Sawyer,   Anja Heinze, Gabriel Renaud, Peter H. Sudmant, Cesare de Filippo, Heng Li, Swapan Mallick, Michael Dannemann, Qiaomei Fu, Martin Kircher, Martin Kuhlwilm, Michael Lachmann, Matthias Meyer, Matthias Ongyerth, Michael Siebauer, Christoph Theunert, Arti Tandon, Priya Moorjani, Joseph Pickrell, James C. Mullikin et al.

Nature (2013) doi:10.1038/nature12886 Received 05 September 2013 Accepted 15 November 2013 Published online 18 December 2013

Abstract

We present a high-quality genome sequence of a Neanderthal woman from Siberia. We show that her parents were related at the level of half-siblings and that mating among close relatives was common among her recent ancestors. We also sequenced the genome of a Neanderthal from the Caucasus to low coverage. An analysis of the relationships and population history of available archaic genomes and 25 present-day human genomes shows that several gene flow events occurred among Neanderthals, Denisovans and early modern humans, possibly including gene flow into Denisovans from an unknown archaic group. Thus, interbreeding, albeit of low magnitude, occurred among many hominin groups in the Late Pleistocene. In addition, the high-quality Neanderthal genome allows us to establish a definitive list of substitutions that became fixed in modern humans after their separation from the ancestors of Neanderthals and Denisovans.

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature12886.html
http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena/data/view/ERP002097

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« Ответ #89 : 22 Декабрь 2013, 13:29:46 »
Relic excavated in western India is probably of Georgian Queen Ketevan // Mitochondrion. 2013 Dec 16

Authors: Rai N, Taher N, Singh M, Chaubey G, Jha AN, Singh L, Thangaraj K

History has well documented the execution of Queen Ketevan of Georgia by the Persian Emperor of modern day Iran. Based on historical records, in 1624 two Augustinian friars unearthed queens remains and one of them brought the relic to St. Augustine convent Goa, India. We carried out ancient DNA analysis on the human bone remains excavated from St. Augustine convent by sequencing and genotyping of the mitochondrial DNA. The investigations of the remains revealed a unique mtDNA haplogroup U1b, which is absent in India, but present in Georgia and surrounding regions. Since our genetic analysis corroborates archaeological and literary evidence, it is likely that the excavated bone belongs to Queen Ketevan of Georgia.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24355295?dopt=Abstract

 

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