АвторТема: География Гаплогруппы I  (Прочитано 42076 раз)

0 Пользователей и 1 Гость просматривают эту тему.

Оффлайн Аббат БузониАвтор темы

  • Модератор
  • *****
  • Сообщений: 19290
  • Страна: ru
  • Рейтинг +1353/-56
  • Y-ДНК: I1a2a1a3a1a1a-YP1084+
  • мтДНК: H16
География Гаплогруппы I
« : 25 Апрель 2009, 20:58:36 »
Версия о миграции гаплогруппы I в Европу с сайта DNA Haritage http://www.dnaheritage.com/masterclass2.asp

The first image (Map 1) shows Palaeolithic Europe 18,000 years ago in the grip of the last ice age. Glacial ice 2km thick covers much of Northern Europe and the Alps. Sea levels are approx. 125m lower than today and the coastline differs slightly from the present day. For example, Britain and Ireland would have been connected to continental Europe (not shown on map).

Map 1 - Ice age Europe (18,000 years ago)


The air would have been on average 10-12 degrees cooler and much more arid. In between the ice and the tree line, drought-tolerant grasses and dunes would have dominated the landscape.

The Neanderthals would have died out around 14,000 years ago leaving the nomadic hunter-gatherer Cro-Magnon (modern man) to pursue the animals of the time. Due to the cold and the need for food, the populations of the day waited the ice age out in the three locations shown on the map. These were the Iberian Peninsula, the Balkans and the Ukraine.

These people were skilled in flint-knapping techniques and various tools such as end-scrapers for animal skins and burins for working wood and engraving were common. Cave painting using charcoal had been around for a couple of thousand years although at this time they were now more subtle than mere outline drawings. These artistic expressions are significant as it shows that people are able to obtain some leisure time. Whether this is ‘art for art’s sake’ or objects of ritual is not known.
             
     If we fast forward to 12,000 years ago (Map 2), the ice has retreated and the land has become much more supportive to life. Many animal species have returned to inhabit the land, although the snake, harvest mouse and mole never made it as far as Ireland before the land bridges re-flooded (ever wondered why there are no snakes in Ireland?).

Map 2- spread of Haplogroups R1b, I and R1a  (12,000 years ago)


    The three groups of humans had taken refuge for so long that their DNA had naturally picked up mutations, and consequently can be defined into different haplogroups. As they spread from these refuges, Haplogroups R1b, I and R1a propagated across Europe.

- Haplogroup R1b is common on the western Atlantic coast as far as   Scotland.
- Haplogroup I is common across central Europe and up into Scandinavia.
- Haplogroup R1a is common in eastern Europe and has also spread across   into central Asia and as far as India and Pakistan.

These three major haplogroups account for approx 80% of Europe's present-day population.    
                    
     Around 8,000 years ago (Map 3), the Neolithic peoples of the Middle East that had developed the new technology of agriculture began moving into Europe. There were several haplogroups involved, mainly E3b, F, J2 and G2.

Map 3 - spread of Neolithic haplogroups  (from 8,000 years ago)


These Neolithic haplogroups came in several waves over time and are found predominantly along the Mediterranean coast. Around 20% of the present-day population are from these Neolithic haplogroups. What is interesting to note is that the agricultural technology spread much further than the people who first 'invented' it.     
          
     A little later, around 4,500 years ago, Haplogroup N3 began moving across from west of the Ural mountains. Haplogroup N3 follows closely the spread of the Finno-Ugric languages.
« Последнее редактирование: 20 Май 2009, 18:00:44 от Аббат Бузони »

Оффлайн Аббат БузониАвтор темы

  • Модератор
  • *****
  • Сообщений: 19290
  • Страна: ru
  • Рейтинг +1353/-56
  • Y-ДНК: I1a2a1a3a1a1a-YP1084+
  • мтДНК: H16
Re: География Гаплогруппы I1
« Ответ #1 : 25 Апрель 2009, 21:55:31 »
Мнение National Geographic о миграции гаплогруппы I (M170)



Мнение National Geographic о миграции гаплогруппы I1 (M253)



Мнение National Geographic о миграции гаплогруппы I2 (P37.2)


Оффлайн Аббат БузониАвтор темы

  • Модератор
  • *****
  • Сообщений: 19290
  • Страна: ru
  • Рейтинг +1353/-56
  • Y-ДНК: I1a2a1a3a1a1a-YP1084+
  • мтДНК: H16
Re: География Гаплогруппы I1
« Ответ #2 : 25 Апрель 2009, 21:56:20 »
Миграция гаплогруппы I1 (Читуай)


Оффлайн Аббат БузониАвтор темы

  • Модератор
  • *****
  • Сообщений: 19290
  • Страна: ru
  • Рейтинг +1353/-56
  • Y-ДНК: I1a2a1a3a1a1a-YP1084+
  • мтДНК: H16
Re: География Гаплогруппы I1
« Ответ #3 : 25 Апрель 2009, 21:57:09 »
Карта I



Карта I1 (по старой классификации I1a)




Карта I2a (по старой классификации I1b)



Карта I2a2 (по старой классификации I1b2)


Карта I2b (по старой классификации I1c)




Оффлайн Аббат БузониАвтор темы

  • Модератор
  • *****
  • Сообщений: 19290
  • Страна: ru
  • Рейтинг +1353/-56
  • Y-ДНК: I1a2a1a3a1a1a-YP1084+
  • мтДНК: H16
Re: География Гаплогруппы I1
« Ответ #4 : 25 Апрель 2009, 21:57:49 »



Оффлайн Аббат БузониАвтор темы

  • Модератор
  • *****
  • Сообщений: 19290
  • Страна: ru
  • Рейтинг +1353/-56
  • Y-ДНК: I1a2a1a3a1a1a-YP1084+
  • мтДНК: H16
Re: География Гаплогруппы I1
« Ответ #5 : 25 Апрель 2009, 21:58:25 »



Оффлайн Аббат БузониАвтор темы

  • Модератор
  • *****
  • Сообщений: 19290
  • Страна: ru
  • Рейтинг +1353/-56
  • Y-ДНК: I1a2a1a3a1a1a-YP1084+
  • мтДНК: H16
Re: География Гаплогруппы I1
« Ответ #6 : 25 Апрель 2009, 21:59:15 »
Вот как смотрят на миграцию моих предков (I1) на http://dna.ancestry.com/ 



The haplogroup you entered I1, is more specific than those currently supported. A related description and map are being displayed.

The initial proliferation of the Paternal Ancient Ancestry Haplogroup I within Europe is most often associated with the flow of the mainly pan-European Gravettian technology. The mutation is estimated to be about 22-23,000 years old and possibly stemmed from descendants who arrived from the Near East about 25,000 years ago. Gravettian technology is characterized by backed blades used for projectile points and is associated with cultures that made Venus statues, such as the Venus of Willendorf. Mammoth hunting was very common during this period and is about the time when minor differences of the Indo-European language developed between eastern and western Europe.

As the last ice age began, it became necessary to move down to below the tree line to hunt game. At its peak, the ice shelf within Europe extended down as far as southern Ireland, the middle of England and across northern Germany. Scandinavia was entirely covered. The sea ice pack extended as far as northern Spain and tundra covered much of continental Europe. The tree line at the height of the ice age extended as far south as southern France, northern Italy, the northern Balkans and across the Black Sea. Haplogroup I populations predominantly took refuge in the Balkans although there is good evidence that southern France was a refuge for this haplogroup also. As the ice age ended and plants and animals were able to move northward again, people in Haplogroup I also migrated north.

Миграция I2 (I1b)


The initial proliferation of the Paternal Ancient Ancestry Haplogroup I within Europe is most often associated with the flow of the mainly pan-European Gravettian technology. The mutation is estimated to be about 22-23,000 years old and possibly stemmed from descendants who arrived from the Near East about 25,000 years ago. Gravettian technology is characterized by backed blades used for projectile points and is associated with cultures that made Venus statues, such as the Venus of Willendorf. Mammoth hunting was very common during this period, which is about the time when minor differences of the Indo-European language developed between eastern and western Europe.

Миграция I2a2 (I1b2)


The initial proliferation of the Paternal Ancient Ancestry Haplogroup I within Europe is most often associated with the flow of the mainly pan-European Gravettian technology. The mutation is estimated to be about 22-23,000 years old and possibly stemmed from descendants who arrived from the Near East about 25,000 years ago. Gravettian technology is characterized by backed blades used for projectile points and is associated with cultures that made Venus statues, such as the Venus of Willendorf. Mammoth hunting was very common during this period and is about the time when minor differences of the Indo-European language developed between eastern and western Europe.

As the last ice age began, it became necessary to move down to below the tree line to hunt game. At its peak, the ice shelf within Europe extended down as far as southern Ireland, the middle of England and across northern Germany. Scandinavia was entirely covered. The sea ice pack extended as far as northern Spain and tundra covered much of continental Europe. The tree line at the height of the ice age extended as far south as southern France, northern Italy, the northern Balkans and across the Black Sea. Haplogroup I populations predominantly took refuge in the Balkans although there is good evidence that southern France was a refuge for this haplogroup also. As the ice age ended and plants and animals were able to move northward again, people in Haplogroup I also migrated north.

Haplogroup I1b is the most frequent subgroup of Haplogroup I in eastern Europe with maximum frequencies in Herzegovinians (64%) and Bosnians (up to 52%). The concentration of Haplogroup I1b is high westward and drops dramatically to almost 1% in northern Italy. I1b extends eastward in moderately high frequency into the north Balkans, the Slavic regions and eastern Ukraine. A glacial refuge for I1b is likely within the Balkan/Dinaric Alp region given the high frequency and diversity, which combined are good identifiers for origins of expansion.

An interesting subgroup is I1b2 which has very high frequency in Sardinian (about 40%) and is found almost exclusively on that island. There is a possibility that the I1b2 subgroup separated from I1b about 20,000 years ago.

Миграция I2b (I1c)


The initial proliferation of the Paternal Ancient Ancestry Haplogroup I within Europe is most often associated with the flow of the mainly pan-European Gravettian technology. The mutation is estimated to be about 22-23,000 years old and possibly stemmed from descendants who arrived from the Near East about 25,000 years ago. Gravettian technology is characterized by backed blades used for projectile points and is associated with cultures that made Venus statues, such as the Venus of Willendorf. Mammoth hunting was very common during this period and is about the time when minor differences of the Indo-European language developed between eastern and western Europe.

As the last ice age began, it became necessary to move down to below the tree line to hunt game. At its peak, the ice shelf within Europe extended down as far as southern Ireland, the middle of England and across northern Germany. Scandinavia was entirely covered. The sea ice pack extended as far as northern Spain and tundra covered much of continental Europe. The tree line at the height of the ice age extended as far south as southern France, northern Italy, the northern Balkans and across the Black Sea. Haplogroup I populations predominantly took refuge in the Balkans although there is good evidence that southern France was a refuge for this haplogroup also. As the ice age ended and plants and animals were able to move northward again, people in Haplogroup I also migrated north.

Haplogroup I1c is possibly older than both I1a and I1b. It can be seen in highest frequency in the German and Dutch populations (12% and 10% respectively) but has a generally broad distribution from the Volgas across to the British Isles. A likely refuge for I1c was southern France, and it has a good correlation with Haplogroup I1a as well as with the mtDNA Haplogroups of V and U5b. A possible coastal migration route exists, and there appears to be a population expansion from Germany and Holland at the start of the Holocene epoch (from 10,000 years ago).

Оффлайн Аббат БузониАвтор темы

  • Модератор
  • *****
  • Сообщений: 19290
  • Страна: ru
  • Рейтинг +1353/-56
  • Y-ДНК: I1a2a1a3a1a1a-YP1084+
  • мтДНК: H16
Re: География Гаплогруппы I1
« Ответ #7 : 25 Апрель 2009, 22:12:13 »
« Последнее редактирование: 29 Октябрь 2009, 23:08:33 от Аббат Бузони »

Оффлайн Аббат БузониАвтор темы

  • Модератор
  • *****
  • Сообщений: 19290
  • Страна: ru
  • Рейтинг +1353/-56
  • Y-ДНК: I1a2a1a3a1a1a-YP1084+
  • мтДНК: H16
Re: География Гаплогруппы I1
« Ответ #8 : 25 Апрель 2009, 22:14:09 »
Гаплогруппа I в русских популяциях

Angela Fechner et al - Boundaries and Clines in the West Eurasian Y-Chromosome Landscape: Insights From the European Part of Russia // AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, 2008




B. A. Malyarchuk and M. V. Derenko - Gene Pool Structure of Russian Populations from the European Part of Russia Inferred from the Data on Y Chromosome Haplogroups Distribution // Russian Journal of Genetics, 2008



Oleg Balanovsky et al - Two Sources of the Russian Patrilineal Heritage in Their Eurasian Context // The American Journal of Human Genetics 82, 236–250, January 2008


« Последнее редактирование: 25 Апрель 2009, 22:23:24 от Аббат Бузони »

Оффлайн Аббат БузониАвтор темы

  • Модератор
  • *****
  • Сообщений: 19290
  • Страна: ru
  • Рейтинг +1353/-56
  • Y-ДНК: I1a2a1a3a1a1a-YP1084+
  • мтДНК: H16
Re: География Гаплогруппы I1
« Ответ #9 : 25 Апрель 2009, 22:15:40 »
Significant genetic differentiation between Poland and Germany follows present-day political borders, as revealed by Y-chromosome analysis

Гаплогруппа I (зеленым) в городах Польши и Германии



http://www.geocities.com/littlednaproject/PGDNA.JPG

http://vetinari.sitesled.com/poland.pdf
« Последнее редактирование: 25 Апрель 2009, 22:22:40 от Аббат Бузони »

Оффлайн Аббат БузониАвтор темы

  • Модератор
  • *****
  • Сообщений: 19290
  • Страна: ru
  • Рейтинг +1353/-56
  • Y-ДНК: I1a2a1a3a1a1a-YP1084+
  • мтДНК: H16
Re: География Гаплогруппы I1
« Ответ #10 : 25 Апрель 2009, 22:16:30 »
Гаплогруппа I в Норвегии

Geographical heterogeneity of Y-chromosomal lineages in Norway

Berit Myhre Dupuy, Margurethe Stenersen, Tim T. Lu b, Bj?rnar Olaisen
Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Oslo, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway
Institute of Medical Informatics and Statistics, Christian-Albrechts-University, Kiel, Germany


Abstract
Y-chromosomal variation at five biallelic markers (Tat, YAP, 12f2, SRY10831 and 92R7) and nine multiallelic short tandem
repeat (STR) loci (DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385I/II and DYS388) in a
Norwegian population sample are presented. The material consists of 1766 unrelated males of Norwegian origin. The
geographical distribution of the population sample reflects fairly well the population distribution around the year 1942, which
is the median birth year of the index persons. Seven hundred and twenty-one different Y-STR haplotypes but 726 different
lineages (Y-STRs plus biallelic markers) were encountered. We observed six known (P*(xR1a), BR(xDE, J, N3, P), R1a, N3,
DE, J), and one previously undescribed haplogroup (probably a subgroup within haplogroup P*(xR1a)). Four of the haplogroups
(P*(xR1a), BR(xDE, J, N3, P), R1a and N3) represented about 98% of the population sample. The analysis of population
pairwise differences indicates that the Norwegian Y-chromosome distribution most closely resembles those observed in Iceland,
Germany, the Netherlands and Denmark. Within Norway, geographical substructuring was observed between regions and
counties. The substructuring reflects to some extent the European Y-chromosome gradients, with higher frequency of P*(xR1a)
in the south-west and of R1a in the east. Heterogeneity in major founder groups, geographical isolation, severe epidemics,
historical trading links and population movements may have led to population stratification and have most probably contributed
to the observed regional differences in distribution of haplotypes within two of the major haplogroups.







BR*(xDE, J, N3, P)" включает в себя I1a и практически из нее одной и состоит.
P*(xR1a) состоит практически из R1b.

http://vetinari.sitesled.com/norway.pdf

Western Norwegian modal haplotype

Western Norway, being relatively remote from the European continent and the known source of Viking migrations is of special anthropological interest. It may represent a relatively untainted North Germanic gene pool, and is usually thought to be a good representative of the Norsemen of the Viking age.

The modal haplotype of W. Norway is 14-12-28-23-10-11-13-14,14 and according to Whit Athey's haplogroup predictor it is suggestive of Y-haplogroup I1a which has a well-known Northwestern European main distribution. Its prevalence in Europe (129 matches) is shown below:



The distribution of a one-step neighbor of the above (14-12-28-23-10-11-13-13,14) with 105 occurrences in Europe has the following distribution:



http://dienekes.blogspot.com/2005/01/western-norwegian-modal-haplotype.html
« Последнее редактирование: 30 Август 2010, 18:54:42 от Аббат Бузони »

Оффлайн Аббат БузониАвтор темы

  • Модератор
  • *****
  • Сообщений: 19290
  • Страна: ru
  • Рейтинг +1353/-56
  • Y-ДНК: I1a2a1a3a1a1a-YP1084+
  • мтДНК: H16
Re: География Гаплогруппы I1
« Ответ #11 : 25 Апрель 2009, 22:17:56 »
Гаплогруппа I в Британии
A Y Chromosome Census of the British Isles

Cristian Capelli, Nicola Redhead, Julia K. Abernethy, Fiona Gratrix, James F. Wilson, Torolf Moen, Tor Hervig, Martin Richards, Michael P.H. Stumpf,
Peter A. Underhill, Paul Bradshaw, Alom Shaha, Mark G. Thomas, Neal Bradman, and David B. Goldstein







http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~gallgaedhil/dna_by_haplogroup.htm


 East Anglia Geographic DNA Project




http://www.geocities.com/thurlowons/eagdna/frame_set.html
http://www.geocities.com/thurlowons/eagdna/tables/hg_freq_y.html
« Последнее редактирование: 25 Апрель 2009, 22:21:05 от Аббат Бузони »

Оффлайн Аббат БузониАвтор темы

  • Модератор
  • *****
  • Сообщений: 19290
  • Страна: ru
  • Рейтинг +1353/-56
  • Y-ДНК: I1a2a1a3a1a1a-YP1084+
  • мтДНК: H16
Re: География Гаплогруппы I1
« Ответ #12 : 25 Апрель 2009, 22:24:41 »


P?ibli?n? rozlo?en? evropsk?ch kultur b?hem interstadi?lu B?lling/Aller?d a jejich charakteristick? Y-haploskupiny (zhotoveno autorem)



?e?t? mu?i sv?m p?vodem dokl?daj?, ?e na?e populace je v?cem?n? rovnom?rn?m mixem v?ech t?? glaci?ln?ch refugi?. Praprap?edkov? necel?ch 16 procent ?esk?ch mu?? doputovali do Evropy a? po skon?en? doby ledov? z P?edn?ho V?chodu (F. Luca a kol.: Y-chromosomal variation in the Czech Republic. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 132, January 2007, str. 132-139)

Оффлайн Аббат БузониАвтор темы

  • Модератор
  • *****
  • Сообщений: 19290
  • Страна: ru
  • Рейтинг +1353/-56
  • Y-ДНК: I1a2a1a3a1a1a-YP1084+
  • мтДНК: H16
Re: География Гаплогруппы I1
« Ответ #13 : 18 Май 2009, 19:08:20 »
Распределение HG I2 по регионам


« Последнее редактирование: 18 Май 2009, 22:40:46 от Аббат Бузони »

Оффлайн Аббат БузониАвтор темы

  • Модератор
  • *****
  • Сообщений: 19290
  • Страна: ru
  • Рейтинг +1353/-56
  • Y-ДНК: I1a2a1a3a1a1a-YP1084+
  • мтДНК: H16
Re: География Гаплогруппы I1
« Ответ #14 : 18 Май 2009, 19:09:26 »
23andMe I1 map


« Последнее редактирование: 18 Май 2009, 23:18:48 от Аббат Бузони »

 

© 2007 Молекулярная Генеалогия (МолГен)

Внимание! Все сообщения отражают только мнения их авторов.
Все права на материалы принадлежат их авторам (владельцам) и сетевым изданиям, с которых они взяты.


Rambler's Top100