АвторТема: дДНК из Америки  (Прочитано 343 раз)

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дДНК из Америки
« : 13 Январь 2019, 00:24:53 »
Ancient mitochondrial DNA and population dynamics in postclassic Central Mexico: Tlatelolco (ad 1325–1520) and Cholula (ad 900–1350)

Ana Y. Morales-Arce, Geoffrey McCafferty, Jessica Hand, Norma Schmill, Krista McGrath, Camilla Speller, 08 January 2019

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12520-018-00771-7

Abstract

The past composition and genetic diversity of populations from Central Mexico during the Postclassic period (ad 900–1520) are still little understood. Two of the largest centres of ancient groups, Tlatelolco and Cholula, declined after European conquest and questions about their relationships with other Central Mexican cities and ritual activities have been debated. Tlatelolco was a Mexica group that practiced the Quetzalcoatl cult and human sacrifice, including the sacrifice of children, while Cholula was considered the main pilgrimage centre and multiethnic city during the Postclassic. This study analysed the mitochondrial DNA control region of 28 human skeletal samples to estimate the genetic affinities of individuals buried at Tlatelolco and Cholula. Amelogenin analysis and whole genome sequencing (WGS) were also applied to determine the sex of the 15 Tlatelolco subadults from sacrificial contexts. Networks, PCoA and Nei genetic distances were calculated to compare Tlatelolco and Cholula haplotypes with available ancient haplotype data from Mesoamerican groups and the two borderland areas, Paquimé and Greater Nicoya. Mitochondrial haplogroups were characterized for 11 of the 15 samples from Tlatelolco (73%) and 12 samples out of 13 from Cholula (92%), revealing the presence of four distinct Amerindian mitochondrial lineages at Tlateloloco, A (n = 6; 55%), B (n = 2; 18%), C (n = 1; 9%) and D (n = 2; 10%); and three lineages in Cholula, A (n = 5; 42%), B (n = 5; 42%) and C (n = 2; 16%). Statistical analysis of the haplotypes, haplogroup frequencies and Nei genetic distances showed close affinity of Tlatelolco’s subadults with ancient Mexica (Aztecs) and closer affinities between Cholula and the Xaltocan of the Basin of Mexico. Sex determination of Tlatelolco subadult sacrifice victims revealed that 83% were females, in contrast to previous studies of subadult sacrificial patterns at the site. Together, these results demonstrate the multi-ethnic nature of religious and economic centres in Postclassic Central Mexico.

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Re: дДНК из Америки
« Ответ #1 : 13 Январь 2019, 00:30:51 »
Molecular analysis of an ancient Thule population at Nuvuk, Point Barrow, Alaska

Justin Tackney, Anne M. Jensen,Caroline Kisielinski, Dennis H. O'Rourke, 09 January 2019

https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23746

Abstract

Objectives

The North American archaeological record supports a Holocene origin of Arctic Indigenous peoples. Although the Paleo‐Inuit were present for millennia, archaeological and genetic studies suggest that modern peoples descend from a second, more recent tradition known as the Neo‐Inuit. Origins of the Neo‐Inuit and their relations to the earlier and later Indigenous peoples are an area of active study. Here, we genetically analyze the maternal lineages present at Nuvuk, once the northernmost community in Alaska and located in a region identified as a possible origin point of the Neo‐Inuit Thule. The cemetery at Nuvuk contains human remains representing a nearly one thousand year uninterrupted occupation from early Thule to post‐contact Iñupiat.

Materials and methods

We selected 44 individuals from Nuvuk with calibrated dates between 981 AD and 1885 AD for molecular analysis. We amplified and sequenced the hypervariable segment I of the mitogenome. We compared the Nuvuk data with previously published sequences from 68 modern and ancient communities from across Asia and North America. Phylogeographic analyses suggest possible scenarios of Holocene Arctic and sub‐Arctic population movements.

Results

We successfully retrieved sequence data from 39 individuals. Haplogroup frequencies in Nuvuk were typed as 66.7% A2b1, 25.6% A2a, and 7.7% D4b1a2a1a. These results suggest that the population at Nuvuk was closest to the ancient Thule and modern Inuit of Canada, and to the Siberian Naukan people. We confirm that haplogroups A2a, A2b1, D2a, and D4b1a2a1a appear at high frequency in Arctic and sub‐Arctic populations of North America and Chukotka. Sister clades D2b and D4b1a2a1b are present in Asian and Eastern European populations.

Discussion

The ancient mitochondrial sequences from Nuvuk confirm the link between the North Slope and the Thule who later spread east, and the maternal discontinuity between the Neo‐Inuit and Paleo‐Inuit. We suggest haplogroups A2a, A2b, and D4b1a2a1a are linked to the ancestors of the Thule in eastern Beringia, whereas the D2 and D4b1a2a1 clades appear to have Asian Holocene origins. Further Siberian and Alaskan genomes are necessary to clarify these population migrations beyond a simple two‐wave scenario of Neo‐Inuit and Paleo‐Inuit.

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Re: дДНК из Америки
« Ответ #2 : 13 Январь 2019, 01:21:26 »
Любопытно, что не была зафиксирована гаплогруппа Х.

Оффлайн Arame

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Re: дДНК из Америки
« Ответ #3 : 13 Январь 2019, 13:21:37 »
Любопытно, что не была зафиксирована гаплогруппа Х.

Она была зафиксирована в других работах.
http://forum.molgen.org/index.php/topic,11428.0.html

По самым новым данным у Кенневикского человека X2.

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Re: дДНК из Америки
« Ответ #4 : 14 Январь 2019, 01:02:09 »

По самым новым данным у Кенневикского человека X2.

Разве не X2a ?

https://www.nature.com/articles/nature14625

 

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